Carole L. Marcus, MBBCh

Carole L. Marcus, MBBCh, is an attending pulmonologist in the Division of Pulmonary Medicine and director of the Sleep Center at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

Areas of Expertise: Sleep Medicine
Appointments and Referrals: 1-800-TRY-CHOP (1-800-879-2467)

  • Education and Training

    Medical School

    MD - University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa


    Pediatrics - Schneider Children's Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY


    Pediatrics - State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY


    Pediatric Pulmonology - Children's Hospital Los Angeles, CA

    Board Certification

    Pediatric Pulmonology
    Sleep Medicine

  • Titles and Academic Titles

    Attending Physician

    Director, Sleep Center

    Professor of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

  • Departments and Services
  • Research Interests

    Understanding the pathophysiology of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the best management of the condition.

  • Publications



    Sleep and Breathing in Children-A Developmental Approach. Loughlin, Carroll, Marcus (eds.). Marcel Dekker, New York, 2000.

    SRS Basics of Sleep Guide. Section Editor, Sleep Physiology. In Opp. (eds.). Sleep Research Society, Westchester, 2005. 2005.

    Sleep and Breathing in Children: Developmental Changes in Breathing During Sleep. 2nd edition. Marcus, Carroll, Donnelly, Loughlin (eds.). Inforrna HealthCare, New York, 2008.

    Sleep in Children: Developmental Changes in Sleep Patterns. 2nd edition. Marcus, Carroll, Donnelly, Loughlin (eds.).lnforrna HealthCare, New York, 2008.


    Ofer D, Marcus CL: CPAP treatment in children. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children. Kheirandish-Gozal (eds.). Springer, Page: 531-540, 2012.

    Katz ES, Marcus CL: Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Children Versus Adults. Sleep apnea: Pathogenesis. diagnosis and treatment. Pack, A (eds.). Informa Healthcare, Page: 370-398, 2012.

    Cielo C, Marcus CL: Cases 30 and 31. Case studies in polysomnography interpretation. Basner RC ( eds.). Cambridge University Press, Page: 31-32, 2012.

    Bandla P, Marcus CL: Obstructive sleep apnea in children. Sleep Medicine Essentials. Lee-Chiong TL (eds.). Wiley-Blackwell, Page: 157-160, 2009.

    Marcus, CL: Pathophysiology of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Neuromotor factors. Sleep and breathing in children: Developmental changes in breathing during sleep. 2nd edition. Marcus, Carroll, Donnelly, Loughlin (eds.). Informa HealthCare, Page: 441-460, 2008.

    Marcus CL: Obstructive sleep apnea in children. Management of obstructive sleep apnea. Johnson, Gluckman and Sanders (eds.). Martin Dunitz, London, Page: 41-54, 2000.

    Marcus CI: Pathophysiology of OSAS in children. Sleep and Breathing in Children-A Developmental Approach. Loughlin GM, Carroll JL, Marcus CL (eds.). Marcel Dekker, New York, Page: 601-624, 2000.

    Marcus CL, Carroll JL: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Principles and Practice of Pediatrics. Oski FA (eds.). Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, PA 3rd: !256-1258, 1999.

    Marcus CL: Sleep Apnea. Johns Hopkins Family Health Book. Klag MJ (eds.). Harper Collins, New York, Page: 253-254, 1999.

    Marcus CL: Central hypoventilation syndromes. Principles and Practice of Pediatrics. Oski FA ( eds.). Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, PA 3rd: 1258-1260, 1999.

    Marcus CL, Carroll JL: Central hypoventilation and hyperventilation syndromes. Respiratory Disease in Children: Diagnosis and Management. Loughlin GM, Eigen H (eds.). Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA Page: 697-706, 1994.

    Marcus CL, Carroll JL: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Respiratory Disease in Children: Diagnosis and Management. Loughlin GM, Eigen H (eds.). Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, Page: 475-499, 1994.

    Marcus CL: Central hypoventilation syndromes. Principles and Practice of Pediatrics. Oski FA (eds.). Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, PA 2nd: 1066-1068, 1994.

    Marcus CL, Carroll JL: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Principles and Practices of Pediatrics. Oski FA (eds.). Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA, 2nd: 1065-1066, 1994.



    Xanthopoulos MS, Bradford R, Berkowitz Rl, Tapia IE, Marcus CL: Behavioral and neurocognitive functioning in obese and non-obese adolescents with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep 36: A386, 2013.

    Thongyarn A, Marcus CL, Lockman JL, Comaglia MA, Caroff A, Gallagher PR, Traylor J, Rizzi MD, Elden L: Prospective study of polysomnographic variables predictive of peri-operative complications after adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 36: A379, 2013.

    Tapia IE, McDonough J, Huang J, Comaglia MA, DiMaria ME, Samuel J, Falvo JS, Davenport PW, Marcus CL: Inspiratory loading cortical processing during wakefulness in children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 36: A386, 2013.

    Tapia IE, McDonough J, Cornaglia .MA, Marcus CL: Children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have elevated airway resistance. SLEEP 36: A385, 2013.

    Tapia IE, Comaglia M, McDonough J, Maggs J, Traylor J, Marcus CL: Children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have selective, persistent upper airway sensory function impairment. American Thoracic Society Page: A5460, 2013.

    S. A Kurcshi, MD, M.A. Cornaglia, J. Maggs, J. McDonough, J. Samuel, J. Traylor, C.L. Marcus: Nasal Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure (NEPAP) Devices for the Treatment of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS): A Pilot Study. SLEEP 36: A347, 2013.

    Pien GW. Jackson NJ, Keenan B, Ratcliffe S, Staley B, Wieland W, Dietrich R, Hurley S, Marcus CL, Schwab R: An examination of different methods for calculating critical upper airway pressures during sleep. SLEEP Page: A125. 2013.

    Paruthi S, Rosen CL, Weng J, Wang R, Marcus CL, Chcrvin RD, Stanley JJ, Katz E, i\min R, rcdlinc S: Capnography: signal quality and association with pediatric obstructive sleep apnea severity. SLEEP 36: A349, 2013.

    Konstantinopoulou S, Tapia IE, Sullivan A, Cielo CM, Radcliffe J, Pipan M, Hanna B, Gallagher PR, Carroll ME, Marcus CL.: The association between polysomnographic parameters and neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes in children with Down syndrome. SLEEP 36: A360, 2013.

    Konstantinopoulou S, Elden L, Garetz S, Rosen CL, Redline S, Mitchell R, Chervin R, Gallagher PR, Marcus CL: Polysomnographic variables predictive of adverse events after adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 36: A385, 2013.

    Cielo CM, Taylor JA, Vossough A, Sullivan A, Radcliffe J, Bradford R, Marcus CL: Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Infants with Cleft Palate and Tongue-Based Airway Obstruction. SLEEP 36: A387, 2013.

    Cielo C, Marcus CL, Paliga JT, Taylor JA: Screening for obstructive sleep apnea in children with craniofacial disorders. American Thoracic Society Page: A5184, 2013.



    Schwab RJ, Kim C, Bagchi S, Keenan BT, Comyn FL, Wang S, Tapia IE, Huang S, Traylor J, Torigian DA, Bradford RM, Marcus CL. Understanding the Anatomic Basis for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Adolescents. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2015.

    Busch DR, Lynch JM, Winters ME, McCarthy AL, Newland JJ, Ko T, Cornaglia MA, Radcliffe J, McDonough JM, Samuel J, Matthews E, Xiao R, Yodh AG, Marcus CL, Licht DJ, Tapia IE. Cerebral Blood Flow Response to Hypercapnia in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. SLEEP 2015, In press.

    Tapia IE, McDonough JM, Huang J, Marcus CL, Gallagher PR, Shults J, Davenport PW. Respiratory Cortical Processing to Inspiratory Resistances during Wakefulness in Children with the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Journal of Applied Physiology 118(4): 400-7, February 2015.

    Goldstein JA, Chung C, Paliga JT, Cielo C, Marcus CL, Lioy J, Bartlett S, Taylor JA. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis for the treatment of neonatal tongue-based airway obstruction. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 2015;26: 634-41.

    Cielo C and Marcus CL. Obstructive sleep apnea in children with craniofacial syndromes. Pediatric Respiratory Reviews 2015, 16:189-196.


    Cielo CM, Silvestre J, Paliga JT, Maguire M, Gallagher PR, Marcus CL, Taylor JA: Utility of screening for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children with craniofacial disorders. Plast Reconstruct Surg 134(3): 434e-44le, Sept 2014.

    Marcus CL, Traylor J, Biggs SN, Roberts RS, Nixon GM, Narang I, Bhattacharjee R, Davey MJ, Horne RSC, Cheshire M; Gibbons KJ, Dix J, Asztalos E, Doyle L W, Opie GF, D'ilario J; Costantini L, Bradford R; Schmidt B: Feasibility of comprehensive, unattended ambulatory polysomnography in school-aged children. J Clin Sleep Med 10(8): 913- 918, August 2014.

    Katz ES, Moore RH, Rosen CL, Mitchell RB, Amin R, Arens R, Muzumdar H, Chervin RD, Marcus CL, Paruthi S, Willging P, Redline S: Growth after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea: An RCT. Pediatrics 134: 282-289, 2014.

    Kureshi SA, Gallagher PR, McDonough JM, Comaglia MA, Maggs J, Samuel J, Traylor J, Marcus CL: Pilot study of nasal expiratory positive airway pressure devices for the treatment of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Journal of' Clinical Sleep Medicine 10: 663-669, 2014.

    Weinstock TG, Rosen CL, Marcus CL, Garctz S, Mitchell RB, Amin R, Paruthi S, Katz E, A.rcns R, Weng J, Ross K, Chervin RD, Ellenberg S, Wang R, Redline S: Predictors of obstructive sleep apnea severity in adenotonsillectomy candidates. Sleep 37: 261-269,2014.

    Marcus CL, Traylor J, Gallagher PR, Brooks LJ, Huang J, Koren D, Katz L, Mason TBA, Tapia IE: Prevalence of periodic limb movements during sleep in normal children. Sleep 37: 1349-1352,2014.

    Kennedy WP, Mudd PA, Maguire MA, Souders MC, McDonald-McGinn OM, Marcus CL, Zackai EH, So lot CB, Mason TB, Jackson OA, Elden LM.: 22q I 1.2 Deletion syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 78(8): 1360-1364, August 2014.

    Marcus CL, Meltzer LJ, Roberts RS, Traylor J, Dix J, D'ilario J, Asztalos E, Opie G, Doyle LW, Biggs SN, Nixon GM, Narang I, Bhattacharjee R, Davey M, Horne RS, Cheshire M, Gibbons J, Costantini L, Bradford R, Schmidt B; Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity–Sleep Study. Long-term effects of caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity on sleep at school age. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Oct 1;190(7):791-9. Read the abstract


    Yuan H, Schwab RJ, Kim C, He J, Shults J, Bradford R, Iluang J, Marcus CL: Relationship between body fat distribution and upper airway dynamic function during sleep in adolescents. Sleep 36(8): 1199-1207, August 2013.

    Prashad Priya S, Marcus Carole L, Brown Lawrence W, Dlugos Dennis J, Feygin Tamara, Harding Brian N, Heuer Gregory G, Alexander Mason Thornton B: Brain Tumor Presenting as Somnambulism in an Adolescent. Pediatric Neurology Jul2013.

    Ong Bruce A, Caboot Jason, Jawad Abbas, McDonough Joseph, Jackson Tannoa, Arens Raanan, Marcus Carole L, Smith-Whitley Kim, Mason Thornton B A, Ohene-frermpong Kwaku, Allen Julian L: Respiratory muscle force and lung volume changes in a population of children with sickle cell disease. British Journal of Haematology Jul2013.

    Marcus Carole L, Moore Renee H, Rosen Carol L, Giordani Bruno, Garetz Susan L, Taylor H Gerry, Mitchell Ron B, Amin Raouf, Katz Eliot S, Arens Raanan, Paruthi Shalini, Muzumdar Hiren, Gozal David, Thomas Nina Hattiangadi, Ware Janice, Beebe Dean, Snyder Karen, Elden Lisa, Sprecher Robert C, Willging Paul, Jones Dwight, Bent John P, Hoban Timothy, Chervin Ronald D, Ellenberg Susan S, Redline Susan: A randomized trial of adenotonsillectomy for childhood sleep apnea. The New England Journal of Medicine 368(25): 2366-76, Jun 2013 Notes: EDITORIAL PUBLISHED.

    Koren Dorit, Marcus Carole L, Kim Christopher, Gallagher Paul R, Schwab Richard, Bradford Ruth M, Zemel Babette S: Anthropometric predictors of visceral adiposity in normal-weight and obese adolescents. Pediatric Diabetes May 2013.

    Huang J, Marcus CL, Davenport PW, Colrain IM, Gallagher PR, Tapia IE: Respiratory and auditory cortical processing in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 188: 852-7, 2013.

    Prashad PS, Marcus CL, Maggs J, Stettler N, Comaglia MA, Costa P, Puzino K, Xanthopoulos M, Bradford R, Barg FK: Investigating reasons for CPAP adherence in adolescents: a qualitative approach. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 9: 1303-13,2013.

    Posters and Presentations

    Apr. 2014, "Update on pediatric SDB,'' Maryland Sleep Society, Baltimore MD

    Jan.2014, "CHAT study," American Thoracic Society journal club webinar

    Nov. 2013, "Positive airway pressure in children" and "Obstructive sleep apnea," 7th Bi-Annual Pediatric Sleep Medicine Conference, Amelia Island, FL

    Nov. 2013, "CPAP management in children," New Jersey Sleep Society, Princeton NJ"

    Oct.2013, Update on pediatric sleep-disordered breathing,"20th Anniversary of Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Taiwan

    Oct. 2013, Plenary lecture "Childhood OSA: What's new in the 2012 AAP guidelines;" and "NIV in childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndromes" and "Approach to sleepiness in children," Hong Kong Society of Paediatric Respirology, Hong Kong

    Sept.2013, "Obesity and childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome," Center for Weight and Eating Disorders, Penn

    Jun. 2013, "Lessons learned on treating the child with mild to moderate OSAS," CHAT symposium SLEEP 2013, Baltimore, MD

    Jun. 2013, "Pediatric OSA," SRS Trainee Day workshop SLEEP 2013, Baltimore, MD

    Jun. 2013, "Pediatric Sleep," Year in Review postgraduate course SLEEP 2013. Baltimore, MD

    Jun. 2013, "Ontogeny of breathing and sleep," Sleep disordered breathing in infants postgraduate course

    Jun. 2013, "Updates to the AASM scoring manual" SLEEP 2013, Baltimore, MD

    Mar. 2013, "Interdisciplinary Sleep Centers," Alberta Children's Hospital Neurology/Pulmonary retreat, Banff: Canada "Interdisciplinary Sleep Centers," Alberta Children's Hospital Neurology/Pulmonary retreat, Banff: Canada

    Mar. 2013, "Childhood obstructive sleep apnea: new aspects of pathophysiology and treatment" University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing

    Jan. 2013, "Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea- relevance to the dentist" University of Pennsylvania School of Dentistry

  • Awards and Honors

    2006, A1menberg Award for contributions to the field of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and apnea
    2005-current, Philadelphia magazine "Top Doctors"
    2003-present, Best Doctors in America/Castle Connolly Top Doctor
    2002, Baltimore magazine "Top Docs

  • Editorial and Academic Positions
    Editorial Positions

    2014, Editor Search Committee, Sleep
    2006-present, Deputy Editor, Sleep
    2002-present, Editorial Board, Pediatric Respiratory Reviews

  • Leaderships
    Memberships in Professional Organizations

    2014-2015, American Heart Association
    - Steering Committee

    2013-present, Sleep Research Network
    - Member, Steering Committee

    2013-2014, American Thoracic Society
    - Program Committee, Sleep & Neurobiology Assembly

    2012-present, American Sleep Medicine Foundation
    - Grants Review Committee

    2012-2013, American Heart Association
    - Scientific Advisory Committee

    2012-2015, American Academy of Sleep Medicine
    - Scoring Manual Committee

    2011-present, American Academy of Sleep Medicine
    - International Classification of Sleep Disorders Taskforce

    2010-present, American Academy of Sleep Medicine
    - Sleep Apnea Definitions Taskforce

    2003-present, Sleep Research Society
    - Chair, Membership Committee, 2003~04

    2001-present, American Academy of Pediatrics
    - Liaison member for the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Review Committee