Jack Rychik, MD

Jack Rychik, MD, is director of the Fetal Heart Program and the Single Ventricle Survivorship Program at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

Areas of Expertise: Echocardiography, Fetal cardiology, Single ventricle physiology
Locations: Main Campus
Phone: 215-590-4040

  • Background

    Dr. Rychik is director of the Fetal Heart Program and the Single Ventricle Survivorship Program at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. He holds the Robert and Dolores Harrington Endowed Chair in Pediatric Cardiology.

    Under Dr. Rychik’s leadership, the mission of the Fetal Heart Program is to offer compassionate, state-of-the-art care to the fetus with heart disease and his or her family; offer a comprehensive, knowledge-based learning experience to expectant mothers carrying a fetus with heart disease and their families and advance our understanding and knowledge in the field of fetal heart science. The program is dedicated to early prenatal diagnosis through fetal echocardiography of congenital cardiac anomalies, allowing vigilant monitoring and preparation for postnatal treatment at CHOP’s renowned Cardiac Center.

    Dr. Rychik has also been instrumental in contributing to the field’s knowledge about the cardiac aspects of other congenital conditions; for example, he developed the unique CHOP Scoring System for Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome, which allows more accurate staging of the disorder. 

    As leader of the Single Ventricle Survivorship Program, Dr. Rychik is focused on studying the long-term effects of current management strategies for single ventricle conditions, in the interest of improving therapies.

    Dr. Rychik serves on the editorial board of numerous national and international journals including Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, Progress in Pediatric Cardiology, Congenital Heart Disease, and the World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. He is a frequent lecturer and presenter at national and international pediatric cardiac conferences on complex cardiovascular disease in both fetal and pediatric patients.

    Dr. Rychik has authored more than 250 peer reviewed research publications, books, reviews, chapters and abstracts on fetal and pediatric cardiac disorders and treatment. He recently completed a book and video image atlas entitled" Fetal Cardiovascular Imaging: A Disease Based Approach," which is expected to be the definitive text on the subject of imaging and management of fetal heart disease.

    He brings over 10 years of experience to The Fetal Heart Program in the field of imaging and managing complex heart disease.

  • Education and Training

    Medical School

    MD - State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, New York, NY

    Residency

    Pediatrics - Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY

    Fellowship

    Pediatric Cardiology - The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA

    Board Certification

    Pediatric Cardiology

  • Titles and Academic Titles

    Director, Fetal Heart Program

    Director, Single Ventricle Survivorship Program

    Associate Chief for Academic Affairs

    Associate Chief, Division of Cardiology

    Attending Cardiologist

    Robert and Dolores Harrington Endowed Chair in Pediatric Cardiology

    Professor of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

  • Departments and Services
  • Publications

    Books

    2012

    Gleason MM, Rychik J, Shaddy RE: Pediatric Practice: Cardiology. McGraw-Hill. New York 2012.

    Rychik J & Tian Z: Fetal Cardiovascular Imaging: A Disease Based Approach. WB Saunders, Elsevier Inc. Philadelphia, 2012.

    2006

    Rychik J. Guest Editor, Progress in Pediatric Cardiology: Advances in Fetal Cardiovascular Disease, Volume 22, No 1, May 2006.

    2002

    Rychik J & Wernovsky G (eds): Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Dordecht, London, publication - November 2002.

    Chapters
    2008

    Szwast A & Rychik J. Fetal Cardiology in Paediatric Cardiology, 2nd Edition, Eds: Anderson, Wernovsky, Elsevier 2008.

    Rychik J. The twin-twin transfusion syndrome: evolving concepts. In Neonatology Questions and Controversies, Editors: Kleinman & Seri, Elsevier 2008.

    Shillingford A, Rychik J. Central nervous system outcomes in congenital heart disease. In Fetal Cardiology, 2nd Edition, Eds: Yagel, Silverman, Gembruch 2008.

    2006

    Rychik J. “Evaluation of the fetal cardiovascular system” in Prenatal Diagnosis, Eds. Mark Evans, Mark Paul Johnson, Yuval Yaron, Arie Drugan. McGraw-Hill 2006, pp 653-671.

    Rychik J. Fetal cardiovascular disease, in “Pediatric Cardiology: The Requisites in Pediatrics,” Ed Victoria L. Vetter, M.D., Mosby/Elsevier 2006, pp 223-237.

    2005

    Rychik J. “Echocardiography and Doppler Ultrasound,” in Ventricular Function and Blood Flow in Congenital Heart Disease, Ed. M.A. Fogel, Futura Publishing, Mount Kisco, New York 2005.

    2004

    Rychik J & Cohen MS: “Echocardiography in the neonatal intensive care unit” in Avery’s Diseases of the Newborn; Taesch W, Ballard R, Gleason C (eds), Harcourt Publishers, 2004 pp 802-811.

    2002

    Rychik J: “Complications after Fontan operation: Protein losing enteropathy and thromboembolic disease”, in Rychik J & Wernovsky G (eds): The Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Dordecht, London, publication - Fall 2002.

    Rychik J: “Non-invasive imaging in the hypoplastic left heart syndrome” in, Rychik J & Wernovsky G (eds): The Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Dordecht, London, publication - Fall 2002.

    2001

    Rychik J: “Utility of fetal echocardiography during invasive intrauterine fetal therapy” in Frontiers in Fetal Health, July 2001, Vol 3, No 7.

    1998

    Rychik J: “The right ventricle supporting the systemic circulation: short and middle term follow up” Chapter 22, in Redington AN, Brawn WJ, Deanfield JE, Anderson RH (Ed): The Right Heart in Congenital Heart Disease, Greenwich Medical Media, London, England, 1998, pp 157-161.

    Rychik J: “Management of protein-losing enteropathy after the Fontan procedure” in Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery: Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual 1998;1:15-21.

    Rychik J: “Diagnostic imaging modalities for congenital heart disease /echocardiographic evaluation,” Chapter 63, in Kaiser LR, Kron IL, Spray TL (Ed): Mastery of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, MA, 1998, pp 602-620.

    1995

    Rychik J: "Murmurs," in Clinical Handbook of Pediatrics, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland, 1995.

    Papers

    2015

    Saul D, Degenhardt K, Iyoob SD, Surrey LF, Johnson AM, Johnson MP, Rychik J, Victoria T. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome and the nutmeg lung pattern in utero: a cause and effect relationship pr prognostic indicator? Pediatr Radiol 2015 [Epub ahead of print]. 

    Patel K, Loomes KM, Goldberg DJ, Mercer-Rosa L, Dodds K, Rychik J. Early impact of Fontan operation on enteric protein loss. Ann Thorac Surg 2015 Nov 30 [Epub ahead of print]. Read the abstract.

    Davey BT, Rychik J. The Natural History of Atrioventricular Valve Regurgitation Throughout Fetal Life in Patients with Atrioventricular Canal Defects. Pediatr Cardiol. 2015 Aug 4. [Epub ahead of print]. Read the abstract.

    Avitabile CM, Goldberg DJ, Zemel BS, Brodsky JL, Dodds K, Hayden-Rush C, Whitehead KK, Goldmuntz E, Rychik J, Leonard MB. Deficits in bone density and structure in children and young adults following Fontan palliation. Bone 2015 Aug;77:12-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2015.04.012. Epub 2015 Apr 14. Read the abstract.

    Brandt JS, Wang E, Rychik J, Soffer D, McCann ML, Schwartz N. Utility of a Single 3-Vessel View in the Evaluation of the Ventricular Outflow Tracts. J Ultrasound Med. 2015 Aug;34(8):1415-21. doi: 10.7863/ultra.34.8.1415. Read the abstract.

    Avitabile CM, Leonard MB, Brodsky JL, Whitehead KK, Ravishankar C, Cohen MS, Gaynor JW, Rychik J, Goldberg DJ. Usefulness of insulin like growth factor 1 as a marker of heart failure in children and young adults after the Fontan palliation procedure. Am J Cardiol. 2015 Mar 15;115(6):816-20. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.12.041. Epub 2015 Jan 6. Read the abstract.

    Mercer-Rosa L, Paridon SM, Fogel MA, Rychik J, Tanel RE, Zhao H, Zhang X, Yang W, Shults J, Goldmuntz E. 22q11.2 deletion status and disease burden in children and adolescents with tetralogy of Fallot. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2015 Feb;8(1):74-81. doi: 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.114.000819. Epub 2015 Jan 5. Read the abstract.

    Juaneda I, Rychik J, Fuller S, Weinberg PM, Rome JJ, Mahle WT, Gaynor JW. Absent pulmonary valve, tricuspid atresia, and congenital heart block. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2015 Jan;6(1):98-100. doi: 10.1177/2150135114544752. Read the abstract.

    2014

    Channing A, Szwast A, Natarajan S, Degenhardt K, Tian Z, Rychik J. Maternal Hyperoxygenation Improves Left Heart Filling In The Fetus With Atrial Septal Aneurysm Causing Impediment To Left Ventricular Inflow. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Oct 9. doi: 10.1002/uog.14688. [Epub ahead of print]. 

    Peyvandi S, Rychik J, Zhang X, Shea JA, Goldmuntz E. Preconceptual Folic Acid Use and Recurrence Risk Counseling for Congenital Heart Disease. Congenit Heart Dis. 2014 Jul 24. doi: 10.1111/chd.12206. [Epub ahead of print]. Read the abstract.

    Rychik J, Cohen D, Tran KM, Szwast A, Natarajan SS, Johnson MP, Moldenhauer JS, Khalek N, Martinez-Poyer J, Flake AW, Hedrick HL, Adzick NS. The Role of Echocardiography in the Intraoperative Management of the Fetus Undergoing Myelomeningocele Repair. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2014 Jul 18. [Epub ahead of print]. Read the abstract.

    Dori Y, Keller MS, Rychik J, Itkin M. Successful Treatment of Plastic Bronchitis by Selective Lymphatic Embolization in a Fontan Patient. Pediatrics 2014 Jul 7. pii: peds.2013-3723. [Epub ahead of print]. Read the abstract.

    Avitabile CM, Leonard MB, Zemel BS, Brodsky JL, Lee D, Dodds K, Hayden-Rush C, Whitehead KK, Goldmuntz E, Paridon SM, Rychik J, Goldberg DJ. Lean mass deficits, vitamin D status and exercise capacity in children and young adults after Fontan palliation. Heart 2014 Jun 27. pii: heartjnl-2014-305723. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2014-305723. [Epub ahead of print]. Read the abstract.

    Avitabile CM, Goldberg DJ, Dodds K, Dori Y, Ravishankar C, Rychik J. A Multifaceted Approach to the Management of Plastic Bronchitis After Cavopulmonary Palliation. Ann Thorac Surg 2014 Aug;98(2):634-40. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.04.015. Epub 2014 May 17. Read the abstract.

    Davey BT, Donofrio MT, Moon-Grady AJ, Fifer CG, Cuneo BF, Falkensammer CB, Szwast AL, Rychik J. Development and Validation of a Fetal Cardiovascular Disease Severity Scale. Pediatr Cardiol Oct;35(7):1174-80. doi: 10.1007/s00246-014-0911-9. Epub 2014 May 7. Read the abstract.

    Donofrio MT, Moon-Grady AJ, Hornberger LK, Copel J, Sklansky M, Abuhamad A, Cuneo B, Huhta JC, Jonas RA, Krishnan A, Lacey S, Lee W, Michelfelder E, Rempel G, Silverman NH, Spray TL, Strasburger J, Twortetzky W, and Rychik J. Diagnosis and Treatment of Fetal Cardiac Disease: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2014 May 27;129(21):2183-242. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.0000437597.44550.5d. Epub 2014 Apr 24. Read the abstract.

    O’Byrne ML, Mercer-Rosa L, Zhao H, Zhang X, Yang W, Tanel RE, Marino BS, Cassedy A, Fogel MA, Rychik J, Paridon S, Goldmuntz E. Morbidity in Children and Adolescents After Surgical Correction of Interrupted Aortic Arch. Pediatr Cardiol. 2014;35:386-92. Read the abstract.

    Szwast A, Tian Z, McCann M, Soffer D, Combs J, Donaghue D, Rychik J. Anatomical variability and outcome in prenatally diagnosed absent pulmonary valve syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg 2014 Jul;98(1):152-8. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.03.002. Epub 2014 May 1. Read the abstract.

    Posters and Presentations

    Lectures by Invitation
    International
    2015

    Rychik J. “Early gestational cardiovascular imaging: what we can see after the first trimester?”, “Prenatal imaging and transposition of the great vessels management”, “Cardiovascular manifestations of multiple pregnancy: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome”, “Prenatal imaging and hypoplastic left heart syndrome management: State of the art in 2015”, “Counseling and maternal stress after diagnosis of fetal heart disease” and “Cardiac treatment before birth: innovations in the management of fetal cardiovascular disease" - at the Encontro Internacional de Cardiologia Fetal e Pediatrica, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Nov. 19-21, 2015.

    Rychik J. “Cardiovascular findings in twin-twin transfusion syndrome: response to laser treatment”, “Intrauterine intervention for left ventricle hypoplasia”, “Cerebrovascular hemodynamics and neurological outcome in fetal heart disease” – at the Great Wall International Cardiology Conference 2015, Beijing, China; Oct. 20, 2015.

    Rychik J. “Assessment of the borderline right ventricle”, “ Extracardiac anomalies affecting the fetal cardiovascular system”, and “Heart care before birth: Treatment of the fetus with cardiovascular disease” – at the Annual Hubei Province Maternal and Child Hospital Obstetrical Ultrasound Conference, Wuhan, China; Oct. 23-25, 2015.

    Rychik J. “Heart care before birth: Treatment of the fetus with cardiovascular disease” – Shenzhen Children’s Hospital, Shenzhen, China; Oct. 22, 2015.

    Rychik J. “Workshop on commonly missed diagnosis: Double-outlet right ventricle” – at the 25th World Congress on Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Montreal, Canada; Oct. 12, 2015.

    2014

    Rychik J.  “Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: Cardiovascular manifestations”, “The fetus with heart disease: Diagnosis and management before and after birth” – Foshan, Maternity Hospital, Conference on Fetal Anomalies, Foshan, Guangzhou, China; Ot. 25-26, 2015.

    Rychik J. “New advances in fetal cardiovascular imaging”, “Hot topics in fetal heart disease in 2014 in the United States” at Hubei Women and Infants Hospital, Symposium on Fetal Anomalies, Wuhan, China; Oct. 23-24, 2015.

    Rychik J. “The fetus with heart disease: Diagnosis and management before birth” at Hangzhou Children’s Hospital of Zheiiang University, Hangzhou, China; Oct. 21, 2014.

    Rychik J. “Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of fetal cardiac disease: Review of the 2014 AHA statement”, “Fetal congenital heart disease: postnatal management and surgery”, “The fetus with heart disease: Diagnosis and management before birth”, “Hot topics in fetal heart disease in 2014 in the United States” at the Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology, Beijing, China; Oct. 17-18, 2014.

    Rychik J. “The effect of extra cardiac anomalies on fetal cardiac function” Qingdao Maternal and Infant Hospital, Qingdao, China; Oct. 16, 2014.

    Rychik J. “The fetus with heart disease: Diagnosis and management before birth” Ordos General Hospital, Ordos, Mongolia, China; Oct. 14, 2014.

    Rychik J. “Cardiac function: Current and future role in the assessment of congenital heart defects”, “Maternal hyperoxygenation improves left heart filling in the fetus with atrial septal defect aneurysm causing impediment to left ventricular inflow”, “ The role of echocardiography in the intraoperative management of the fetus undergoing myelomeningocele repair”, “Experience with early fetal cardiovascular imaging at < 15 weeks gestation in a high risk population” and “Pericardial teratoma: diagnosis and management in the fetus,” at the 24th World Congress on Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISUOG Meeting) Barcelona, Spain; Sept. 15-17, 2014.

    National

    Rychik J. “Disruptive thinking: Treating the fetus with a cardiac defect before birth” – at Evolution or Revolution? Disruptive Thinking Technology and Innovation in the Treatment of Pediatric Heart Disease, Miami, FL; Dec. 5, 2015.

    Rychik J. “Delivery and neonatal management planning for fetal heart disease” at Cardiovascular Seminar: Improving perinatal outcome through fetal diagnosis of CHD, Scientific Sessions American Heart Association 2015, Orlando, FL; Nov. 29, 2015.

    Rychik J. “Delivery and neonatal management planning for fetal heart disease” at Cardiovascular Seminar: Improving perinatal outcome through fetal diagnosis of CHD, Scientific Sessions American Heart Association 2015, Orlando, FL; )ct. 17, 2015.

    Rychik J. “Categorizing CHD based upon complexity and expected postnatal course”, “Growing the fetal brain: The CHOP experience”, “Fetal interventions: The crystal ball” – at the International Cardiology Neonatology Symposium, Miami, FL; Oct. 8-10, 2015.

    Rychik J. “Anomalies of the cardiac chambers: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome”, “Single ventricle type of congenital heart disease: prenatal assessment management and prognosis”, “Anomalies of the great vessels: transposition of the great arteries”, “Prenatal counseling after detection of congenital heart disease: what to say and how to say it” – at the 6th Annual Fetal Echocardiography: Normal and Abnormal Hearts course, Las Vegas, NV; Oct. 1-3, 2015.

    Rychik J. “Innovations in congenital heart disease treatment and care” – CHD Symposium: Mended Little Hearts, Orlando, FL; Jun. 27, 2015.

    Rychik J. “The relentless paradox of the Fontan circulation” – Congenital Heart Symposium at the American Association of Thoracic Surgeons Meeting (AATS), Seattle, WA; Apr. 26, 2015.

    Rychik J. “Function assessment of the fetal heart: Normal anatomy, normal function”, “Delivering the results of the examination: Parental counseling” – at the Session “Advanced Fetal Cardiac Examination” at the AIUM Annual Scientific Sessions, Orlando, FL; Mar. 21, 2015.

    Rychik J. “Challenge of the fetus as a patient: Can we optimize outcomes for congenital heart disease if we begin care before birth”, “Cardiovascular manifestations of the twin-twin transfusion syndrome” - at the 18th Annual Update on Congenital and Pediatric Cardiovascular Disease, Scottsdale, AZ; Feb. 11-15, 2015.

    2014

    Rychik J. “Heart care before birth: treatment of the fetus with cardiovascular disease” Cazden Memorial Visiting Professor and Pediatric Grand Rounds at Oregon Health Sciences University, Doernbecher Children’s Hospital, Portland, OR; Dec. 11, 2014.

    Rychik J. “Pathophysiology of the Fontan circulation” and “Development of a single ventricle survivorship program” - visiting Professor and Pediatric Grand Rounds, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA; Oct. 28-30, 2014.

    Rychik J. “Congenital heart defects: Early prenatal detection and treatment strategies” and “Panel: Prenatal versus postnatal care of myelomeningocele and complex cardiac defects” at Prenatal Care Symposium, Akron Children’s Hospital and Medical Center, Akron, OH; Sept. 19, 2014.

    Rychik J.  “Value of Fetal Echocardiography” – at the ASE Echocardiography Values Summit, JW Marriott, Washington, DC; Sept. 12, 2014.

    Rychik J. “Hypoplastic left heart syndrome”, “Single ventricle anomalies: prenatal diagnosis and prognosis”, “D-transposition of the great vessels”, “Impact of prenatal diagnosis of heart anomalies on maternal psychological stress” – at 5th Annual Course on Fetal Echocardiography: Normal and Abnormal Hearts, Las Vegas, NV; Sept. 4-6, 2014.

    Rychyik J. “Switching things up: transpositions,” in session adult congenital primer for the general echocardiographer, and “Predicting neurodevelopmental outcome” in session fetal echo and prognosis, at 25th Annual Scientific Sessions of the American Society of Echocardiography, Portland, OR; Jul. 21-23, 2014.

    Rychik J. “Heart care before birth: state of the art diagnosis and management of fetal cardiovascular disease” – Pediatric Grand Rounds, Cohen Children’s Medical Center, LIJ-North Shore University Hospital, New Hyde Park, NY; May 2, 2014.

    Rychik J. “Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: hyperoxygenation, Doppler assessment and intervention for restrictive atrial septum,” “ Heterotaxy syndrome in the fetus made ridiculously simple,” “Extracardiac venous anomalies: from agenesis to aneurysms,” and “Cardiovascular manifestations of twin-twin transfusion syndrome” – The 5th Phoenix Fetal Cardiology Symposium, Phoenix, AZ; Apr. 23-27, 2014.

    Rychik J. “The effect of extra-cardiac anomalies on fetal cardiac function” and “Protein-losing enteropathy: new understandings and therapeutic strategies”, Visiting Professor, Milwaukee Children’s Hospital, Herma Heart Center, Milwaukee, WI; Mar. 25-27, 2014.

    Rychik J. “Fetal cardiac therapy: can we treat cardiovascular conditions before birth?” – NEO Conference 2014, Orlando, FL; Feb. 23, 2014.

    Rychik J. “Presenting your data: the effective oral presentation”, “Protein-losing enteropathy and plastic bronchitis: new understandings and therapeutic strategies”, “Can we alter blood flow and heart structure in the fetus? The use of oxygen to manipulate fetal cardiovascular physiology” – 17th Annual Update on Congenital and Pediatric Cardiovascular Disease” Orlando, FL; Feb. 19-23, 2014.

  • Awards and Honors

    2014, Cazden Memorial Lecturer Award in Pediatric Cardiology – Oregon Health Sciences University, Doernbecher Children’s Hospital, Portland, OR

    2014, Chai Lifeline, Physician Community Service Award

    2013, The Children’s Heart Foundation “Smart Heart” Award for Innovative Research

    2013, Founder’s Award, American Society of Echocardiography

    2012-2015, Philadelphia Magazine – “Top Docs” designation, pediatric cardiology

    2011, David J. Driscoll Visiting Professor and Lectureship, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN

    2010, Richard L. Day Teaching Award in Pediatrics, Alumni Association, Downstate Medical Center

    2009-present, Robert S. and Dolores Harrington Endowed Chair in Pediatric Cardiology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

    2009, Feigenbaum Lecturer, American Society of Echocardiography Scientific Sessions 

    2009, Feigenbaum Lecturer, American Society of Echocardiography Scientific Sessions 

    2007, Award for best oral abstract presentation, session on fetal cardiology, International Society for Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (Florence, Italy; October 9, 2007)

    2007, “Best Doctors” designation

    2001, Philadelphia Magazine – “Top Docs” designation

    1989, ACC/ Syntex Continuing Medical Education Award

  • Editorial and Academic Positions
    Editorial Positions

    2010–present, Editorial Board, World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery 
    2008–present, Editorial Advisory Board, Progress in Pediatric Cardiology
    2006–present, Editorial Board, Congenital Heart Disease: Clinical Studies from Fetus to Adulthood
    2005–present, Editorial Board, Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy

    Academic and Institutional Committees

    2012-present, Cardiac Center Operations and Planning Committee
    2007-present, Cardiac Center Technology and Information Systems Committee
    2002-present, Cardiac Center Strategic Business and Planning Committee

  • Leaderships
    Memberships in Professional Organizations
    International

    2003-present,  Member, International Fetal Medicine and Surgery Society
    2007-present, Member, International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

    National

    1989-present, Member, American Heart Association/Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young
    1993-present,  Fellow, American College of Cardiology
    1993-present,  Member, American Society of Echocardiography