Barbara Schmidt, MD, FRCP (C), MSC

Barbara Schmidt, MD, FRCP (C), MSC, is an attending neonatologist at CHOP Newborn Care at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.

Areas of Expertise: Collaborative controlled clinical trials in newborns, Early prediction of neurodevelopment in very preterm infants, Neonatal research ethics
Locations: CHOP Newborn Care at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
Appointments and Referrals: 1-800-TRY-CHOP (1-800-879-2467)

  • Background

    Barbara Schmidt, MD, MSc, is a professor of Pediatrics and senior scholar in the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. She is also a staff neonatologist in the Division of Neonatology at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania Health System.

    Dr. Schmidt’s research focuses on collaborative neonatal randomized trials that have clinically important, long-term outcomes such as growth and development. Examples of trials she directed in the past include the “Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms.” In this study, 1,202 extremely low-birth-weight infants from five countries were followed to the end of the second year of life. The results from the study showed that the high rate of mental and motor deficits in these children is not improved by prophylactic treatment with indomethacin. She is also the principal investigator of the “Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity” trial, which enrolled over 2,000 very low-birth-weight infants in North America, Europe, Israel and Australia. Caffeine has been used for more than 30 years to regulate the breathing of very preterm babies, but without sufficient knowledge of the possible benefits and risks. To date, this trial has shown that caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity improves the rate of survival without neurodevelopmental disability up to two years after very preterm birth. This study will continue to follow the study participants well into school age.

    Since May 2010, Dr. Schmidt is a co-principal investigator of the Data Coordinating Center for the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program (PROP) sponsored by NHLBI and located at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. One of the goals of this multi-center collaboration is the identification of predictors of respiratory outcomes that may serve as surrogate endpoints in future trials of prevention and therapy of respiratory diseases in preterm infants. In addition, since April 2011, Dr. Schmidt is the clinical center PI for the University of Pennsylvania and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia in the reconfigured Neonatal Research Network (NRN) of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD.

  • Education and Training

    Medical School

    MD - Georg-August University, Goettingen, Germany


    University Hospitals, Freiburg, Germany


    University Children's Hospital, Freiburg, Germany


    Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada

    Graduate Degree

    MSc - Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University

  • Titles and Academic Titles

    Attending Neonatologist

    Senior Scholar, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

    Professor of Pediatrics and Kristine Sandberg Knisely Chair in Neonatology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

  • Centers and Programs
  • Research Interests
  • Publications



    Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Whyte RK, Asztalos EV, Poets C, Rabi Y, Solimano A, Nelson H; Canadian Oxygen Trial Group. Impact of study oximeter masking algorithm on titration of oxygen therapy in the Canadian oxygen trial. J Pediatr. 2014 Oct;165(4):666-71.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.05.028. Epub 2014 Jun 25. PMID: 24973289. Read the abstract

    Marcus CL, Meltzer LJ, Roberts RS, Traylor J, Dix J, D'ilario J, Asztalos E, Opie G, Doyle LW, Biggs SN, Nixon GM, Narang I, Bhattacharjee R, Davey M, Horne RS, Cheshire M, Gibbons J, Costantini L, Bradford R, Schmidt B; for the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity – Sleep (CAP-S) study. Long-term Effects of Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity on Sleep at School-age. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Aug 29. [Epub ahead of print] Read the abstract.

    Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Whyte RK, Asztalos EV, Poets C, Rabi Y, Solimano A, Nelson H; Canadian Oxygen Trial Group. Impact of Study Oximeter Masking Algorithm on Titration of Oxygen Therapy in the Canadian Oxygen Trial. J Pediatr. 2014 Jun 25. pii: S0022-3476(14)00455-7. [Epub ahead of print]. Read the abstract.

    DeMauro SB, Cairnie J, D’Ilario J, Kirpalani H, Schmidt B. Honesty, Trust, and Respect During Consent Discussions in Neonatal Clinical Trials. Pediatrics. 2014 Jul;134(1):e1-3. Epub 2014 Jun 9. Read the abstract.

    Schmidt B, Davis PG, Roberts RS. Timing of caffeine therapy in very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2014 May;164(5):957-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.01.054. Epub 2014 Mar 12. Abstract not available.

    Schmidt B, Davis PG, Asztalos EV, Solimano A, Roberts RS. Association between severe retinopathy of prematurity and nonvisual disabilities at age 5 years. JAMA. 2014;311(5):523-525. Read the abstract.

    Schmidt B, Whyte RK, Roberts RS. Trade-Off between lower or higher oxygen saturations for extremely preterm infants: The first benefits of oxygen saturation targeting (BOOST) II trial reports its primary outcome. J Pediatr. 2014 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print] Read the abstract.

    Giaccone A, Jensen E, Davis P, Schmidt B. Definitions of extubation success in very premature infants: a systematic review. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2014;99(2):F124–127. Read the abstract.


    DeMauro SB, Cohen MS, Ratcliffe SJ, Abbasi S, Schmidt B. Serial echocardiography in very preterm infants: a pilot randomized trial. Acta Paediatr. 2013 Nov;102(11):1048-53. Epub 2013 Sep 13. Read the abstract.

    Sherenian M, Profit J, Schmidt B, Suh S, Xiao R, Zupancic JA, DeMauro SB. Nurse-to-patient ratios and neonatal outcomes: a brief systematic review. Neonatology. 2013;104(3):179-83. Epub 2013 Aug 8. Review. Read the abstract.

    Schmidt B, Whyte RK, Asztalos EV, Moddemann 0, Poets C, Rabi VI Solimano A, Roberts RS; for the Canadian Oxygen Trial (COT) Group. Effects of Targeting Higher vs Lower Arterial Oxygen Saturations on Death or Disability in Extremely Preterm Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2013;309(20):2111-20.


    Schmidt B, Anderson PJ, Doyle LW, Dewey D, Grunau RE, Asztalos EV, Davis PG, Tin W, Moddemann D, Solimano A, Ohlsson A, Barrington KJ, Roberts RS; Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial Investigators. Survival without disability to age 5 years after neonatal caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. JAMA 2012 Jan 18; 307(3):275-82.

    Guillen U, DeMauro S, Ma L, Zupancic J, Roberts R, Schmidt B, Kirpalani H. Relationship between attrition and neurodevelopmental impairment rates in extremely preterm infants at 18 to 24 months: a systematic review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Feb;166(2): 178-84.


    Demauro SB, Giaccone A, Kirpalani H, Schnidt B. Quality of reporting of neonatal and infant trials in high-impact journals. Pediatrics. Epub 2011 Aug 22. Cited in PubMed; PMID 21859916. Read the abstract

    Demauro SB, Roberts RS, Davis P, Alvaro R, Bairam A, Schmidt B. Impact of delivery room resuscitation on outcomes up to 18 months in very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2011 Oct;159(4):546-50.e.1. Epub 2011 May 17. Cited in PubMed; PMID 21592510. Read the abstract

    Dukhovny D, Lorch SA, Schmidt B, Doyle LW, Kok JH, Roberts RS, Kamholz KL, Wang N, Mao W, Zupancic JA; for the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group: Economic Evaluation of Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity. PEDIATRICS 2011; 127:e146-e155.


    Davis PG, Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Doyle LW, Asztalos E, Haslam R, et al. Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial: Benefits may vary in subgroups. J Pediatr. 2010 Mar;156(3):382-7. Epub 2009 Nov 18. Read the abstract

    Binenbaum G, Bruno CJ, Forbes BJ, Snyder MA, Mollen TJ, Schmidt B, et al. Periocular ulcerative dermatitis associated with gentamicin ointment prophylaxis in newborns. J Pediatr 2010;156:320-321. Read the article