Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a type of dysautonomia, which is a malfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS automatically controls our heart rate, blood pressure, gastrointestinal motility and other automatic functions of the body. POTS is the most common form of dysautonomia, affecting between 500,000 and 1 million individuals in the United States.
POTS is associated with many symptoms. Patients frequently have difficulty standing upright, resulting in a rapid heart rate with lightheadedness, nausea, fatigue, dizziness or fainting. Many patients struggle with daily activities and may be unable to work, attend school or participate in recreational activities.
The cause of POTS is unknown. For some patients, symptoms start after the onset of puberty. Some patients develop the condition after having a virus, like mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus), or in association with joint hypermobility, where joints are very stretchy (sometimes referred to as “double-jointed”). Others have it after repeated brain trauma or concussions. A small group of patients have POTS associated with a metabolic disorder, a disease in which abnormal chemical reactions occur in the body.
For up to 75 percent of patients, POTS symptoms may improve, or even disappear, by age 21 to 25 years.
Symptoms of POTS vary widely from person to person and are often invisible to the untrained eye. Many POTS symptoms are also associated with other diseases and conditions, so it is important to realize that having these symptoms does not mean that your child has POTS. Consultation with your child’s doctor is important to accurately diagnose POTS.
Symptoms can be unpredictable — they may come and go, appear in any combination and vary in severity. Often patients will have more symptoms after a stressor or a physical activity, but the exact triggers that cause the onset of POTS are unknown.
Symptoms may include a combination of the following:
Obtaining a thorough patient history is an essential first step in diagnosing POTS. At CHOP, your child’s doctors will evaluate past and present symptoms.
Clinical criteria for diagnosing POTS include orthostatic intolerance (the inability to remain upright) resulting in a faster than normal heart rate within 10 minutes of standing.
Your child’s symptoms will help us determine which specialists she should be referred to for further evaluation and care. For example, POTS can be associated with chronic headaches, connective tissue disorders, mitochondrial disorders, a history of concussion and gastrointestinal disorders. Anxiety and depression can also be associated with having a chronic disease. At The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), your child has access to all of the different types of care she may need.
Because the exact cause of POTS is unknown, the common treatment approach is to focus on managing the symptoms. POTS symptoms can be controlled by using a combination of medications and nonpharmacologic treatments. Treatment options are highly individualized depending on your child’s unique needs.
Medications are used to reduce or to manage the symptoms of POTS.
The goal is to match the medications with the symptoms that they cover to find the right doses and combinations to control your child’s symptoms. Some patients with POTS are very sensitive to medications, so we start with very low doses to avoid side effects.
The next part of treatment is exercise, which typically makes a large difference in overall well-being and may be one of the most significant factors in helping to resolve POTS. Exercise is focused on building core and lower extremity strength. Exercise is also thought to play a role in possibly resetting the autonomic nervous system.
In addition to medical management, your child’s care team may recommend that your child use a combination of the following nonpharmacologic interventions:
Patients referred to CHOP for management of POTS will be cared for through our POTS Program, which facilitates coordinated, multidisciplinary care for children with this challenging and complex condition.
What works for one patient doesn’t always work for another, so we collaborate with you and your child to find the therapy, or combination of therapies, that makes a difference. Our goal is to reduce symptoms in order to make daily life easier on our patients so that they can work, go to school, and be an active part of their families.
It is important to let your child’s care team know about any side effects from therapies so that we can adjust treatment as needed. Make sure to write down any questions and bring them to your child’s next visit, or call the POTS Program any time at 215-590-4040, option 1.
Coping with a chronic disease is stressful, and many families find counseling to be helpful. CHOP's psychosocial staff is available to support you at any time.
It is important to know that your child’s symptoms may vary from hour to hour, day to day, and week to week. Some patients also experience what we call the “October slide,” worsening as the autumn progresses.
It may be difficult for family members, friends or teachers to understand these changes, and some may question whether the symptoms, or the illness, are real. Your child’s care team at CHOP can provide education and resources to your child’s school or family members to help them understand POTS and how they can best support your child. Some patients even give talks in their schools to raise awareness about POTS.
Children and adolescents treated for POTS at CHOP have access to world-renowned experts across every pediatric subspecialty who work together to help manage the various medical problems associated with POTS.
Coordinated, multidisciplinary care is managed through our dedicated POTS Program, which brings together clinicians from cardiology, neurology, gastroenterology, genetics and other areas, making our team one of the largest and most experienced in the nation dedicated to caring for children with POTS.
For your family’s convenience, we see patients in several locations. Our family-centered care model includes support services to help your child and family cope with having a chronic illness. Our specialists are also involved in research focused on improving treatment options and outcomes for children with POTS.
Related clinics and services available to your child at CHOP include the following, among others:
Reviewed by: Jeffrey Boris, MD, Tom Bernadzikowski, MS, MSN, CRNP
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