4-7 ml; for infants a volume of 2-4 ml is acceptable
4 ml; for infants a volume of 2 ml is acceptable
Keep specimen at 4C
If an extended delay in transport of specimens is anticipated, rapidly freeze the specimens to at least -60°C and transport to the laboratory on dry ice. Depending on the specimen type (e.g., blood for plasma or serum), some processing of specimen material may be necessary before specimens can be frozen and shipped. Please consult the laboratory if necessary.
Amplification and detection of enterovirus RNA 5'-untranslated region using TaqMan real-time PCR technology. This test is performed pursuant to an agreement with Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.
If positive, results are reported as enterovirus RNA detected.
Negative or no enterovirus RNA detected
Clinical Utility: Nonpolio enteroviruses are responsible for significant and frequent illnesses in infants and young children. The spectra of clinical diseases are diverse and often difficult to distinguish from other infectious or noninfectious processes. Mild infections include fever ± rash, hand-foot-mouth syndrome, herpangina, pleurodynia, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, and croup. Potentially serious manifestations include aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, acute paralysis, neonatal sepsis, myocarditis/pericarditis, hepatitis, and chronic infection. Aseptic meningitis and neonatal sepsis generate the most medical attention in children during annual outbreaks. Detection of enteroviruses by PCR may be enhanced by collecting specimens from multiple different body sites. These may include CSF, urine, blood (serum or plasma), respiratory, stool, tissue (e.g., liver, myocardium), and sterile body fluids (e.g., pericardial fluid, pleural fluid). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the specimen of choice for detecting enteroviruses in patients with aseptic meningitis or other central nervous system (CNS) diseases. It is also recommended that urine and serum specimens be sent on all patients with CNS disease to increase the likelihood of finding an enterovirus. A positive result from any one of these specimens is diagnostic for enteroviral disease. Both urine and serum should be sent on neonates and other children that present with sepsis or acute nonfocal febrile illness. Please Note: positive results from respiratory and stool specimens do not always correlate with disease because of prolonged viral shedding. Positive results from these specimens should be interpreted accordingly.