Breast and Chest Wall Disorders Treated at CHOP | The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Breast and Chest Wall Disorders

Breast development begins in utero, before a baby is born. The stage of breast development associated with puberty typically begins between the ages of 8 and 13, but every child develops differently. If your child develops breasts earlier or later than average, that does not mean that she has a medical problem. Many breast differences are part of normal development in both boys and girls. Asymmetrical breast buds are very common, as are breast buds that come and go, and cysts of the breasts.

Breast disorders in children and adolescents can come from a variety of causes, some congenital and some acquired in nature.

Congenital breast deformities are present at birth. They may be evident when the child is born (for example, Poland syndrome where part of the chest wall muscle is missing), or may only become apparent in adolescence (for example, mammary hypoplasia or hyperplasia, or breast asymmetries). The cause of most of these disorders is unknown.

Breast deformities can also be acquired later in development, as a result of trauma, burns, tumors, surgery, infection or endocrine dysfunction.

Types of pediatric breast and chest wall disorders

Evaluation and diagnosis

At CHOP, boys and girls with breast and chest wall disorders are diagnosed and treated through our Pediatric and Adolescent Breast Program. Through this program, your child will have access to experts that will treat all aspects of the condition.

Evaluation includes, when indicated, a full medical and endocrine evaluation, as well as evaluation by a psychologist when the breast condition has affected your child socially or psychologically. Comprehensive treatment for breast disorders in children addresses the functional, appearance-related and psychosocial aspects of the condition itself.


Breast and chest wall disorders are commonly treated with surgery. The timing and type of surgery to treat breast and chest wall disorders depends on the needs of the individual patient. Many factors are considered when determining the best treatment plan for your child, including age, severity of the disorder, and psychosocial health. Surgeries that are commonly performed include:

Reviewed by: Oksana Jackson, MD
May 2014

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