Conditions We Treat
Our surgeons have vast experience with the full spectrum of plastic surgical problems — from the routine to the rare. We treat problems resulting from birth deformities, trauma (such as motor vehicle accidents and burns), masses, growths or tumors (including cancer, neurofibroma and fibrous dysplasia), and growth disturbances (after radiation therapy), as well as appearance-related disorders.
Our surgeons work in multidisciplinary teams throughout the institution to treat a wide variety of conditions and anomalies. Click on a topic below to expand the section and learn more about the related conditions that can be treated by plastic and reconstructive surgical procedures.
Types of Breast Deformities
Breast deformities in children and adolescents can come from a variety of causes, some congenital and some acquired in nature.
- Poland Syndrome
A birth defect characterized by the underdevelopment or absence of the chest muscle on one side of the body, causing breast asymmetry.
Enlarged breast tissue in males.
- Breast masses
Masses or lumps in the breast that can be benign or cancerous.
- Juvenile hypertrophy
Drastic enlargement of one or both of the breasts that occurs in females during puberty, caused by excessive growth of connective tissue. Also known as gigantomastia
Overdevelopment of breast tissue.
- Breast asymmetry
Different sized breasts caused by uneven development.
Underdevelopment of breast tissue, also known as micromastia.
- Nipple/Areolar deformities
Abnormalities of the nipple and the areola, can be benign or malignant.
- Supernumerary breast
An extra breast or milk-secreting gland existing in addition to the two usual breasts, also known as an accessory breast.
Brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injuries refer to injuries to the group of nerves that supply the arms and hands. These injuries include birth-related palsies, trauma and peripheral tumors.
Learn more about brachial plexus injuries »
Types of Facial Motion Disorders
Facial motion disorders can be congenital or acquired after birth. There are many types, including facial nerve palsies, facial spasm or those that occur as part of a syndrome.
- Facial nerve palsy and facial paresis (i.e. Bells Palsy)
The paralysis (or partial paralysis) of any structures controlled by the facial (cranial) nerve, causing an inability to control facial muscles.
- Facial spasm (synkinesis, dyskinesis)
Irregular, involuntary facial movement.
- Facial weakness due to pedatric stroke
Facial nerve palsy acquired as a result of stroke, causing paralysis, paresis, or inability to control facial muscles on one or both sides of the face.
- Moebius syndrome
Neurological disorder affecting the cranial nerves that results in the inability to move the face or move the eyes laterally.
Failure of fusion of the sides of the lip and the roof of the mouth results in cleft lip, which ranges from mild (notching of the lip) to severe (opening from lip to nose), and/or cleft palate, which can extend from the front of the mouth to the throat and often includes the lip and gum.
- What are the types of cleft lip and palate?
– Unilateral defects: affecting one side of the lip and/or palate
– Bilateral defects: affecting both sides of the lip and/or palate
– Complete: opening that extends from the lip into the nose
– Incomplete: a notching of the lip that does not extend into the nose
– Form-fruste cleft lip: a subtle, small indentation of the lip
– Submucous cleft palate: cleft is covered by the mucous membrane that lines the roof of the mouth
– Syndromes with associated cleft lip and palate
Types of Craniofacial Deformities
Craniofacial deformities are malformations of the head, face and jaw that can be congenital or acquired after birth. They can occur alone or as part of a syndrome.
- Stickler syndrome
- Orbital hypertelorism
- Rare craniofacial clefts
- Treacher Collins syndrome
- Hemifacial microsomia (also known as craniofacial microsomia)
- Overgrowth syndromes
– Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
- Atrophic conditions
– Binder syndrome
– Complex cutis aplasia
– Fat atrophy
– Linear scleroderma
– Midfacial hypoplasia
– Parry-Romberg syndrome
- Craniofacial tumors: including fibrous dysplasia, neurofibromatosis, dermoids and encephalocoeles
- Deformational plagiocephaly
- Pierre-Robin syndrome
- Tongue-based airway obstructions
Types of Ear Deformities
Abnormal development or deformities of the ear anatomy can cause a range of complications, from cosmetic issues to hearing and development problems. Some ear deformities are present at birth, while others are acquired in nature.
Learn more about different ear deformities »
- Protruding ears
Ears that stick out more than 2 cm from the side of the head.
- Constricted ears
A variety of ear deformities where the helical rim is either folded over (also called lop ear), wrinkled, or tight.
Underdeveloped external ear.
Ear cartilage framework that is partially buried beneath the skin on the side of the head.
Total absence of the ear.
- Stahl's ear
Pointy ear shape and an extra cartilage fold (crus) in the scapha portion of the ear.
- Ear tags
Also known as an accessory tragus or a branchial cleft remnant, consist of skin and cartilage.
- Earlobe deformities
These come in a variety of shapes, including earlobes with clefts, duplicate earlobes, and earlobes with skin tags.
- Traumatic ear deformities
Lacerations, tears and bite injuries.
- Split earlobes
Occur gradually due to large or heavy earrings.
- Cauliflower ear
Abnormal cartilage forms on top of the normal cartilage, resulting in bulky misshapen ears.
- Ear keloids
Caused by excessive scar tissue formation after minor trauma, most commonly after ear piercing.
- Ear hemangiomas
Most common benign tumor of infancy, can occur anywhere on the body, including the external ear and the salivary gland in front of the ear.
Types of Vascular Malformations
Vascular malformations are a type of birthmark or a growth, present at birth and composed of blood vessels that can cause functional or cosmetic problems. There are several different types of vascular malformations and they are named according to which type of blood vessel is predominantly affected. Learn more about these conditions »
- Capillary vascular malformations (port wine stains)
Capillary vascular malformations look like irregular patches of pink or purple skin that can occur anywhere on the head, body and extremities.
- Spider angiomas
Spider angiomas are caused by small arteries that travel to the surface of the skin and branch out, resembling a small red spider with tiny legs.
- Venous malformations
Venous malformations are dilated veins or abnormal clusters of dilated veins that can occur in utero.
- Arteriovenous malformations
Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are high-flow vessel abnormalities characterized by dilated arteries that connect directly with draining veins.
- Lymphatic malformations
Lymphatic malformations affect the lymph vessels, which are similar to veins, except they carry water (lymph) instead of blood. They result in water-filled cysts that range in size.
- Pyogenic granulomas (lobular capillary hemangiomas)
Pyogenic granulomas are small clusters of blood vessels covered by a thin, fragile layer of skin.
Patients with a condition called tuberous sclerosis may develop small red bumps on their face, especially on the nose and cheeks. This condition was formerly called adenoma sebaceum.
Glomangiomas are collections of glomus cells, presenting as benign clusters of bluish-purple nodules that are often painful and sensitive to pressure.
- Hemangiomas and pigmented lesions
Hemangiomas are one of the most common vascular birthmarks that may be present at birth or appear in the first months after birth. A hemangioma is also known as a port wine stain, strawberry hemangioma and salmon patch.
Blood vessel abnormalities may accompany a variety of genetic or inherited syndromes.
– Venolymphatic malformations: vascular malformations that affect both veins and lymph vessels
– Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome: capillary, venolymphatic malformations
– Parkes Weber syndrome: capillary, arteriovenous malformations
– CLOVES: congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevus and spinal abnormalities
– Proteus syndrome
– Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome)
– Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS)
Our team treats children and adolescents with the full range of traumatic injuries in efforts to minimize damage and scarring.
– Complex wounds
– Facial bone fractures
Specialists in orthopedics and plastic surgery work together to treat children with congenital deformities, injuries and tumors of the hand and arm.
Fingers that are webbed or jointed together.
Extra fingers or thumb duplication.
Abnormally large fingers.
An abnormally bent or curved finger.
Flexed finger that cannot straighten.
- Trigger finger/thumb
A common cause of bent thumbs in pre-school age children.
- Hypoplastic digits
Missing or underdeveloped fingers.
- Cleft hand
A split hand that is usually V-shaped and may also include missing fingers.
- Radial club hand
Radius bone in the forearm is missing or fails to form properly during prenatal development.
- Ulnar club hand
Ulna forearm bone doesn't form properly during prenatal development, leading to an abnormally bent wrist.
- Madelung deformity
An abnormally aligned wrist.
- Hand problems related to nerve injuries
Erb's Palsy is one example of paralysis of the arm caused by trauma to the upper brachial plexus in the spinal cord, usually during childbirth.
- Bone and soft tissue tumors
Including endochondroma, osteochondroma and sarcoma
- Ganglion cyst
A benign, fluid-filled lump on the hand that develops along tendons or joints. Most frequently on the back of the wrist.
Including burns, nerve injuries and reattachment of limbs.
- Fractures and dislocations
- Tendon injuries
Velopharyngeal dysfunction causes complications with swallowing, breathing and speech due to abnormal function of the velopharyngeal valve, which includes the soft palate and side and back walls of the throat. We treat a variety of related disorders, including:
– Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI)
– Post-palatoplasty VPI
– Congenital VPI
– Speech disorders associated with 22q11 deletion syndrome
– Submucous cleft palate
Cleft and craniofacial conditions often require orthodontic treatment to prepare the lips, gums, palate and jaw for surgical procedures. Our orthodontists specialize in the treatment of cleft and craniofacial conditions and provide a wide range of treatment options that range from surgical preparation to palate expansion and general orthodontic treatment.
– Nasoalveolar molding (NAM) for cleft lip and palate patients
– Phase I and Phase II orthodontic treatment
– Orthognathic surgical orthodontics to correct conditions affecting the jaw
Individualized diagnosis and management of appearance-related disorders is vital to the growth and development of children impacted by these conditions. Adolescents may require cosmetic surgery for psychological well-being and improved quality of life. Our dedicated psychologist provides additional support for patients with appearance-related conditions.
– Rhinoplasty (surgery to reshape the nose)
– Nasal deformities
– Ear deformities
– Breast deformities
– Limb deformities
– Other cosmetic conditions including scars
There are a variety of genetic anomalies and birth deformities that don't fall into a specific category. Our team works with specialists from across the Hospital to treat children and adolescents with many conditions that may benefit from plastic and reconstructive surgery.
– Airway obstructions
– Congenital limb anomalies