Micrognathia | The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery


Micrognathia is a condition in which the jaw is undersized. It is a symptom of a variety of craniofacial conditions. Sometimes called mandibular hypoplasia, micrognathia may interfere with your child’s feeding and breathing.

Micrognathia is somewhat common in infants, but often corrects itself as your child grows. In some children, micrognathia can cause abnormal tooth alignment because there is not enough room in your child’s mouth for the teeth to grow.

Micrognathia can present as a birth defect in numerous syndromes, including cleft lip, cleft palate, Pierre Robin sequence or syndrome, Stickler’s syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, hemifacial microsomia, Teacher Collins syndrome and others.

Causes of micrognathia

Micrognathia can be inherited (passed on through genes) or caused by a genetic mutation. In rare cases, the cause of micrognathia is unknown.

Symptoms of micrognathia

Children with micrognathia often show signs of “failure to thrive,” a term medical professionals use when children begin to fall off their growth curve.

Symptoms of micrognathia can vary from child to child but may include:

In rare case, parents will report that their child turns blue when feeding or sleeping due to trouble breathing.

Diagnosing micrognathia

We begin your child’s evaluation with a thorough medical history and physical exam by one of our craniofacial specialists.

During the physical exam, we look at:

After the exam, we may order diagnostic tests including:

Other specialists involved in the evaluation and treatment of children with micrognathia include neonatologists, geneticists, otolaryngologists, pulmonologists and feeding specialists. Your child may be examined by a variety of specialists before a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan is made.

Your child’s care will be managed through CHOP’s multidisciplinary Craniofacial Program, which brings together all of these specialists to provide coordinated care for your child.

Treating micrognathia

Most children with micrognathia are able to be treated without undergoing surgery.

Non-surgical therapies to treat micrognathia include:

If these minimally-invasive measures do not work, your child may require surgery.

Surgical treatments for micrognathia include:

Long-term outcomes for children with micrognathia

Outcomes for children with micrognathia are generally good, but can vary depending on the severity of the condition, how quickly it was diagnosed, and how it was treated.

Early diagnosis and ongoing monitoring help clinicians determine the best time to medically or surgically intervene to give your child the best long-term quality of life.

Why choose us

At CHOP, children with micrognathia have access to the nation’s top pediatric specialists and coordinated care through our Craniofacial Program. While we tailor therapy to each individual child, this multidisciplinary program streamlines care and makes sure you child has access to all the specialists and services he may need before, during and after treatment.

The craniofacial experts at CHOP are world leaders in the treatment of micrognathia. Our innovative approaches are being adopted by other leading children’s hospitals, and we are committed to improving the quality of life for your child.

Our dedication to excellence will be apparent to you, not only in our practice, but in all the experts who help us diagnose and treat children with micrognathia. Our goal is to minimize your child’s interaction with us — we want them home with you, healthy!

Reviewed by: Scott Bartlett, MD and Jesse Taylor, MD
Date: March 2014

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