The relationship between vaccines and diabetes has been the subject of several excellent studies.
The hypothesis that the timing of vaccines either causes or prevents diabetes was tested in 21,421 children who received the Hib conjugate vaccine between 1988 and 1990 in the United States. These children were followed for 10 years after receiving the Hib vaccine. The risk of diabetes was indistinguishable from a group of 22,557 children who did not receive the Hib vaccine.
Another excellent study evaluating the relationship between vaccines and diabetes was performed using data from the Vaccine Safety DataLink. Four large HMOs were used to identify children with diabetes born between 1988 and 1997. All four HMOs maintained registries of children with diabetes and cases were confirmed by means of medical records. Investigators compared 252 cases of diabetes with 768 matched controls. Children who received whole-cell pertussis, MMR, Hib, hepatitis B or varicella vaccines were not at greater risk for diabetes than children who did not receive those vaccines. In accord with the Vaccine Safety DataLink study, several other well-controlled retrospective studies found that immunizations were not associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes.
In 2011 the Institute of Medicine reviewed studies of adverse events related to vaccines. One of the associations studied was whether the tetanus component of the DTaP vaccine caused type 1 diabetes. The committee concluded that development of type 1 diabetes was not caused by receipt of the this vaccine.
Therefore, the best available evidence does not support the hypothesis that vaccines cause diabetes.
Black SB, Lewis E, Shinefield H, et al. Lack of association between receipt of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (HbOC) in infancy and risk of type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes: long term follow-up of the HbOC efficacy trial cohort. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:568-569.
DeStefano F, Mullooly JP, Okoro CA, et al. Childhood vaccinations, vaccination timing, and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics 2001;108:(6). URL:http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/108/6/e112
Graves PM, Barriga KJ, Norris JM, et al. Lack of association between early childhood immunizations and b-cell autoimmunity. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1694-1697.
Heijbel H, Chen RT, Dahlquist G. Cumulative incidence of childhood-onset IDDM is unaffected by pertussis immunization. Diabetes Care 1997;20:173-175.
Hummel M, Fuchtenbusch M, Schenker M, et al. No major association between breast-feeding, vaccinations, and childhood viral diseases with early islet autoimmunity in the German BABYDIAB study. Diabetes Care 2000;23:969-974.
Institute for Vaccine Safety Diabetes Workshop Panel. Childhood immunizations and type 1 diabetes: summary of an Institute for Vaccine Safety Workshop. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1999;18:217-222.
Reviewed by: Paul A. Offit, MD
Date: April 2013
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