Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) Publications

The following list of publications will help you in your search for more information about the ex utero intrapartum therapy (EXIT) procedure. Most are written by members of the Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment team at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. If you are unable to obtain any of these publications, please let us know, and we will send copies to you.

Journal articles


Lin EE, Moldenhauer JS, Tran KM, Cohen DE, Adzick NS. c: 13-Year Single-Center Experience. Anesth Analg. 2016 Aug;123(2):411-7.


Laje P, Peranteau WH, Hedrick HL, Flake AW, Johnson MP, Moldenhauer JS, Adzick NS. Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) in the management of cervical lymphatic malformation. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Feb;50(2):311-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.11.024. Epub 2014 Nov 10.


Laje P, Howell LJ, Johnson MP, Hedrick HL, Flake AW, Adzick NS. Perinatal management of congenital oropharyngeal tumors: The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) approach. J Pediatr Surg. 2013 Oct;48(10):2005-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2013.02.031.

Moldenhauer J. Ex Utero Intrapartum Therapy. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2013 Feb;22(1):44-9. doi: 10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2012.10.008. Cited in PubMed; PMID 23395145.


Laje P, Johnson MP, Howell LJ, Bebbington MW, Hedrick HL, Flake AW, et al. Ex utero intrapartum treatment in the management of giant cervical teratomas. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Jun;47(6):1208-16. Cited in PubMed; PMID:22703795.


Liechty KW. Ex-utero intrapartum therapy.  Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009 Aug 14. [Epub ahead of print]


Hedrick HL, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Howell LJ, Johnson MP, Wilson RD, Adzick NS. The ex utero intrapartum therapy procedure for high-risk fetal lung lesions. J Pediatr Surg 40: 1038-1044, 2005.


Bouchard S, Johnson MP, Flake AW, Howell, LJ, Myers, LB, Adzick NS, Crombleholme TM. The EXIT procedure: Experience and outcomes in 31 cases. Journal of Pediatric Surgery 37:418-426, 2002.


Crombleholme TM, Sylvester K, Flake AW, Adzick NS: Salvage of a fetus with Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 15:280-282, 2000.


Liechty KW, Crombleholme TM, Weiner S., Bernick B, Flake AW, Adzick NS. The ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure for a large fetal neck mass in a twin gestation. Obstetrics & Gynecology 93(5 pt 2): 825-825, May 1999.


Hubbard AM, Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS: Prenatal MRI evaluation of giant neck masses in preparation for the fetal EXIT procedure. American Journal of Perinatology, Vol. 15, p 253-257, 1998.

Liechty KW, Crombleholme TM. Flake AW, Morgan MA, Kurth CD, Hubbard AM, Adzick NS: Intrapartum airway management for giant fetal neck masses: The EXIT procedure (Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment) Am J Ob Gyn 177:870-874, 1997.

Mychaliska G, Bealer J, Graf J, Adzick NS, Harrison MR: Operating on placental support: The Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) procedure. J Pediatr Surg 32:327-231, 1997.


Langer JC, Fitzgerald P, Filly RA, Golbus MS, Adzick NS, Harrison MR: Cervical cystic hygroma in the fetus: Clinical spectrum and outcome. J Pediatr Surg 25:58-62, 1990.

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