Giant Neck Mass Publications

The following list of fetal treatment and fetal surgery publications about neck masses will help you in your search for more information about giant neck masses. Most of these articles and publications about giant neck masses are written by members of the Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment team at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. If you are unable to obtain any of these publications on giant fetal neck masses, please let us know and we will send copies to you.

Journal articles


Laje P, Peranteau WH, Hedrick HL, Flake AW, Johnson MP, Moldenhauer JS, Adzick NS. Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) in the management of cervical lymphatic malformation. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Feb;50(2):311-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.11.024. Epub 2014 Nov 10.


Kaplan MC, Coleman BG, Shaylor SD, Howell LJ, Oliver ER, Horii SC, Adzick NS. Sonographic features of rare posterior fetal neck masses of vascular origin. J Ultrasound Med. 2013 May;32(5):873-80. doi: 10.7863/ultra.32.5.873. Review. 


Cahill AM, Nijs E, Ballah D, Rabinowitz D, Thompson L, Rintoul N, Hedrick H, et al. Percutaneous sclerotherapy in neonatal and infant head and neck lymphatic malformations: A single center experience. J Pediatr Surg. 2011 Nov;46(11):2083-95. Cited in PubMed; PMID 22075337.


Liechty KW, Hedrick HL, Hubbard AM, Johnson MP, Wilson RD, Ruchelli ED, Howell LJ, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Adzick NS. Severe pulmonary hypoplasia associated with giant cervical teratomas. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Jan;41(1):230-3.


Liechty KW, Crombleholme TM. Management of fetal airway obstruction. Seminars in Perinatology 23(6):496-506, Dec 1999.


Liechty KW, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Morgan MA, Kurth CD, Hubbard AM, Adzick NS: Intrapartum airway management for giant fetal neck masses: the EXIT procedure (Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment) Am J OB GYN 177:870-874, 1997.


Hubbard AM, Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS: Prenatal MRI evaluation of giant neck masses in preparation for the fetal EXIT procedure. American Journal of Perinatology, Vol. 15, p 253-257, 1998.

Mychaliska G, Bealer J, Graf J, Adzick NS, Harrison MR: Operating on placental support: The Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) procedure. J Pediatr Surg 32:327-231, 1997.


Johnson MP, Johnson A, Isada NB, Wapner R, Holzgreve W, Evans MI: First trimester cystic hygroma, etiology and outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 168(1): 156-161, 1993.


Langer JC, Fitzgerald P, Filly RA, Golbus MS, Adzick NS, Harrison MR: Cervical cystic hygroma in the fetus: Clinical spectrum and outcome. J Pediatr Surg 25:58-62, 1990.

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