Education and Training
MS in Medical Health Physics - Texas A & M University, College Station, TX
Medical Health PhysicsDiagnostic Radiologic Physics
Titles and Academic Titles
Director, Radiology Physics and Engineering
Departments and Services
Degnan A, Zhu X, Saul D, Flowers C, Zhang H, Fox W, Imaging Assessment of Partial Liquid Ventilation in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology, Print in press, available online December 2018
Victoria T, Zhu X, Lachman R, Dwek JR, Johnson AM, Epelman M, Oliver E, Adzick NS, Biko DM What Is New In Prenatal Skeletal Dysplasias? American Journal of Roentgenology, 2018 May: 210(5):10222-1033 doi: 10.2214/AJR.17.19337. Epub 2018 Mar 12
Kaplan SL, Magill D, Felice MA, Ali S, Zhu X: Female Gonadal Shielding with Automatic Exposure Control Increases Radiation Risks, Pediatric Radiology, 2018 Feb:48(2):227-234. doi: 10.1007/s00247-017-3996-5. Epub 2017 Oct 18
Shellikeri S, Setser RS, Vatsky S, Srinivasan A, Krishnamurthy G, Zhu X, Keller M, Cahill AM: Prospective evaluation of MR Overlay on real-time fluoroscopy for percutaneous extremity biopsies of bone lesions visible on MRI but not on CT in children in the Interventional Radiology suite; Pediatric Radiology 2018 Feb;48(2):270-278. doi: 10.1007/s00247-017-3995-6. Epub 2017 Nov 12.
Shellikeri S, Setser R, Hwang T, Srinivasan A, Krishnamurthy G, Vatsky S, Girard E, Zhu X, Keller M, Cahill AM: Real-time fluoroscopic needle guidance in the Interventional Radiology suite using navigational software for percutaneous bone biopsies in children. Pediatric Radiology. Pediatric Radiology 2017 Jul; 47(8):963-973. doi: 10.1007/s00247-017-3830-0. Epub 2017 May 4.
Kaplan SL, Magill D, Felice MA, Edgar JC, Anupindi SA, Zhu X: Intussusception reduction: Effect of air vs. liquid enema on radiation dose. Pediatric Radiology 2017 Oct; 47(11):1471-1476. doi: 10.1007/s00247-017-3902-1. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
Zhu X, McCullough WP, Mecca P, Servaes S, Darge K.: Dual-energy compared to single-energy CT in pediatric imaging: a phantom study for DECT clinical guidance. Pediatric Radiology 2016 Nov;46(12):1671-1679. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
Glatz AC, Zhu X, Gruber PJ. Letter by Glatz et al: regarding article, "Cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk estimation in children with heart disease". Circulation 2015 Apr 21;131(16):e417. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012944.
Downing TE, McDonnell A, Zhu X, Dori Y, Gillespie MJ, Rome JJ, Glatz AC: Cumulative medical radiation exposure throughout staged palliation of single ventricle congenital heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol. 2015 Jan;36(1):190-5. doi: 10.1007/s00246-014-0984-5. Epub 2014 Aug 6.
Abend NS, Dlugos DJ, Zhu X, Schwartz ES, Utility of CT-compatible EEG electrodes in critically ill children, Pediatric Radiology, 2015 Apr;45(5):714-8. doi: 10.1007/s00247-014-3208-5. Epub 2014 Oct 31.
Sarkissian EJ, Sankar WN, Baldwin K, Flynn JM, Is there a predilection for breech infants to demonstrate spontaneous stabilization of DDH instability? Pediatr Orthop. 2014 Jul-Aug;34(5):509-13
McDonnell A, Downing TE, Zhu X, Ryan R, Rossano JW, Glatz AC, Cumulative Exposure to Medical Sources of Ionizing Radiation in the First Year After Pediatric Heart Transplantation, Journal of Heart Lung Transplant. 2014 Nov;33(11):1126-32
Downing TE1, McDonnell A, Zhu X, Dori Y, Gillespie MJ, Rome JJ, Glatz AC, Cumulative Medical Radiation Exposure Throughout Staged Palliation of Single Ventricle Congenital Heart Disease Pediatric Cardiology, Pediatric Cardiology, 15 Jan;36(1):190-5
Glatz AC, Patel A, Zhu X, Dori Y, Hanna BD, Gillespie MJ, Rome JJ., Patient radiation exposure in a modern, large-volume, pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratory Pediatric Cardiology. 2014 Jun; 35 (5):870-8
Patel AR, Ganley J, Zhu X, Rome JJ, Shah M, Glatz AC. Radiation Safety Protocol Using Real-Time Dose Reporting Reduces Patient Exposure in Pediatric Electrophysiology Procedures Pediatric Cardiology. 2014 Oct;35(7):1116-23
Glatz AC, Purrington KS, Klinger A, King AR, Hellinger J, Zhu X, Gruber SB, Gruber PJ. Cumulative Exposure to Medical Radiation for Children Requiring Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease Journal of Pediatrics. 2014 Apr; 164(4):789-794
Ballah D, Nijs E, Keller MS, Zhu X, Krishnamurthy G, Cahill AM, Percutaneous CT-guided Vertebral Bone Biopsy in Children Pediatric Radiology. 2013 Mar; 43(5):582-8
Beck NA, Miller R, Baldwin K, Zhu X, Spiegel D, Drummond D, et al: Views add Value in the Diagnosis of Spondylolysis in Adolescents? Journal of Bone Joint and Surgery American Volume 2013 May 15; 95(10)
Servaes S, Zhu X, The Effects of Bismuth Breast Shields in Conjunction with Automatic Tube Current Modulation in CT Imaging Pediatric Radiology. 2013 Oct; 43(10)
Miller R, Beck NA, Sampson NR, Zhu X, Flynn JM, Drummond D. Imaging Modalities for Low Back Pain in Children: A Review of Spondyloysis and Undiagnosed Mechanical Back Pain Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. 2013 Apr, 33(3):282-8
Fogel M, Fogel MA, Pawlowski TW, Whitehead KK, Harris MA, Keller MS, Glatz AC, Zhu W, Shore D, Diaz LK, Rome JJ. Cardiac magnetic resonance and the need for routine cardiac catheterization in single ventricle patients prior to Fontan: A comparison of 3 groups: Pre-Fontan CMR versus Cath Evaluation Journal of American College of Cardiology. 2012 Sep 18; 60(12):1094-102
Zhu X, Felice M, et al. Developing low-dose C-arm CT imaging for Temporo-mandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorder in Interventional Radiology Pediatric Radiology. 2011; 41:476–482
Glatz AC, Zhu X, et al. The Use of Angiographic CT Imaging in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory for Congenital Heart Disease Journal of the American College of Cardiology Cardiovascular Imaging Nov 2010 Nov;3(11):1149-57
Willis PD, Auerbach JD, Zhu X, Caird MS, et al. Comparison of Cobb Angle Measurement of Scoliosis Radiographs with Pre-selected End Vertebrae, Traditional versus Digital acquisition Spine. 2008; 32:98-105
Kim PK, Zhu X, Houseknecht E, Nickolau D, Mahboubi S, Nance ML. Effective radiation dose from radiologic studies in pediatric trauma patients. World J Surg. 2005 Dec; 29(12):1557-62. Cited in PubMed; PMID 16331342.
Zhu X, Radiation safety consideration with yttrium 90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin), Sem Nucl Med, 2004 Jan;34(1 Suppl 1):20-3. Cited in PubMed; PMID 14762741.
Zhu X, Radiation Safety Considerations with Therapeutic 90Y Zevalin Operational Radiation Safety, Supplement to Health Physics. Vol. 85, No. 2, Aug. 2003
Ballah B, Mizesko M, Zhu X. et al The use of low dose C-arm CT in temporomandibular joint injection (TMJ) in interventional radiology [abstract presentation]. RSNA 96th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting; 2011 Nov 27-Dec 2; Chicago, IL.
Miller RA, Beck NA, Rendon Sampson N, Zhu X, Flynn JM, Drummond DS. Low back pain in children: natural history and value of diagnostic radiologic studies [podium presentation]. American Academic of Pediatrics National Conference & Exhibition 2011; Oct 15-18; Boston, MA.
Ballah D, Zhu X, Edgar JC, Cahill AM. The role of C-arm CT in the treatment of complex head and neck lymphatic malformations [oral abstract presentation]. 23rd International Congress of Lymphology; 2011 Sep 19-23; Malmo, Sweden.
Flynn JM, Beck, NA, Miller RA, Baldwin K, Zhu X, et al. Are oblique views valuable in the diagnosis of spondylolysis in children? [poster presentation]. Scoliosis Research Society 46th Annual Meeting & Course; 2011 Sep 14-17; Louisville, KY.
Zhu X. Successful career strategies in medical physics - making career transitions work for you [invited panel discussion]. 2011 Joint AAPM/COMP Meeting; 2011 Aug 2; Vancouver, Canada.
Zhu X, Felice A. Comparing radiation dose from 3D O-arm imaging (3D-Oarm) with that of traditional CT and 2D imaging, oral presentation, International Pediatric Radiology 6th Congress and Exhibition; 2011 May 27-31; London, England
Ballah D, Zhu X, et al. The role of C-arm computed tomography in the treatment of venous malformations and prediction of local skin complications [oral presentation]. American Federation of Medical Research Eastern Regional Meeting; 2011 Apr 26-27; Washington, DC.
Ballah D, Zhu X, et al. The role of cone beam CT in the treatment of venous malformations and prediction of local skin complications [oral presentation]. Society of Interventional Radiology; 2011 Mar 24-29; Chicago, IL.
Patel A, Ganley H, Zhu X, et al. Radiation safety protocol using real-time dose reporting reduces patient exposure in pediatric electrophysiology procedure [abstract oral presentation]. American Heart Association Annual Conference; 2010 Nov 14-17; Chicago, IL.
Zhu X, Cahill AM, A review of the clinical outcomes of implementing optimized radiation dose techniques for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) treatments utilizing C-arm CT [abstract presentation]. RSNA 96th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting; 2010 Nov 28-Dec 3; Chicago, IL.
Meyer J, Zhu X, et al, Strategies for radiation dose reduction in pediatric fluoroscopy: a quality and patient safety project [abstract]. Society for Pediatric Radiology Annual Meeting; 2010 Apr 13-17; Boston, MA.
Bermudez DM, Epelman MS, Hellinger JH, Zhu X, et al. Low-dose radiation CT angiograms are as accurate as standard chest CT in the diagnosis of congenital lung lesions [abstract]. 20th Annual Meeting of American Academy of Pediatric (surgery section); 2009 Oct; Washington, DC.
Zhu X, Felice M, Johnson L, Fontalvo L, Krishnamurthy G, Cahill AM. Developing low dose CT-like imaging protocols for clinical applications in interventional radiology [abstract]. RSNA; 2009 Nov 29-Dec 4; Chicago, IL.
Glatz AC, Zhu X, Gillespie MJ, Hanna B, Rome JJ. The use of angiographic CT imaging in the cardiac catheterization laboratory for congenital heart disease [abstract]. Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention 32nd Annual Scientific Session; 2009 May 6-9; Las Vegas, NV.
Zhu X, Felice M, Johnson L, Fontalvo L, Krishnamurthy G, Cahill AM. Developing low dose CT-like imaging for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder in interventional radiology [abstract]. Society for Pediatric Radiology; 2009 Apr 21-25; San Diego, CA..
Zhu X, Dirnbach M, Felice M. A radiation dose survey of fluoroscopic 3D imaging modalities with an anthropomorphic pediatric phantom [abstract]. Society for Pediatric Radiology; 2009 Apr 21-25; San Diego, CA.
Zhu X, Servaes S. Multiple detector CT (MDCT) chest image using axial and angular (real time) tube current modulation with breast shielding: a phantom study [abstract]. RSNA; 2008 Nov 30-Dec 5; Chicago, IL.
Epelman M, Hellinger J, Zhu X, Gruber P, Keller M. The broken heart: an illustrated review of corrective and palliative surgeries in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) utilizing low dose multidector CT angiography (CTA) [abstract]. RSNA; 2008 Nov 30-Dec 5; Chicago, IL.
Hellinger J, Epelman M, Zhu X, Keller M. The patched heart: an Illustrated review of endovascular and percutaneous devices utilized for palliative repair and supportive care in children with congenital heart disease: technique and findings utilizing low dose multidector CT angiography [abstract]. RSNA; 2008 Nov 30-Dec 5; Chicago, IL.
Pollock AN, Zhu X. Effect of source to image distance and collimation of radiation dose to patients during fluoroscopic procedures [abstract]. Society for Pediatric Radiology Annual Meeting; 2007 April 16-21; Seattle, WA.
Zhu X, Pollock AN. Understanding your fluoroscopic unit, a quantitative dose table [abstract]. Society for Pediatric Radiology Annual Meeting; 2007 April 16-21; Seattle, WA.
Mahboubi S, Zhu X, Nance ML. Review automatic tube current modulation in pediatrics [abstract]. 44th ESPR; 2007 Jun 3-7; Barcelona Spain.
Mahboubi S, Zhu X, Nance ML. Radiation dose reduction for abdominal CT imaging [abstract]. ARRS 106th Annual Meeting; 2006 Apr 30-May 5; Vancouver, Canada.
Zhu X, Mahboubi S, Nance ML. Radiation dose reduction for abdominal CT imaging with automatic current modulation (A TCM) in pediatric patients [abstract]. SRR; 2006 May 18-20; Montreal, Canada.
Zhu X, Baskin K, Cahill A, Kay R. Evaluation of dose reduction and image quality with a contrast-detail phantom in a digital flat panel radiography system [abstract]. Society for Pediatric Radiology 47th Annual Meeting; 2004 Apr 27-May 1; Savannah, GA.
Zhu X, Felice M. A comparison of dose reduction of lightweight and lead aprons [abstract]. Society for Pediatric Radiology 47th Annual Meeting; 2004 Apr 27-May 1; Savannah, GA.
Felice M. Zhu X. A comparison of radiation doses from scoliosis imaging with various “in-field” shields [abstract]. Society for Pediatric Radiology 47th Annual Meeting; 2004 Apr 27-May 1; Savannah, GA.
Zhu X. Dosage of radiopharmaceuticals and internal dosimetry. In: Charron M, editor. Pediatric PET imaging. New York: Springer; 2006.
Edited by Bruce D. Cheson Georgetown University, Ibritumomab Tiuxetan (Zevalin) in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, published by Oncology Journal ISBN 1-8914-8319-6©2004.
Posters and Presentations
Zhu X, Whitaker J, Shellikeri S; Cahill AM, Estimation of Peak Skin Dose with Dose Structure Reports in a Radiation Data Management System, Society of Pediatric Radiology Annual Meeting & Postgraduate Course, April 30 – May 4, 2019, San Francisco, CA (e-Poster)
Irving SY, Flowers C, Crawford JE, Lin R, Srinivasan V, Laura Schleelein L, White A, MD, Zhu X, Kaplan SL: A Reduced Radiation Dose Protocol is Feasible for Assessment of Enteral Feeding Tube Location in Children. ASPEN 2019 Nutrition Science & Practice Conference. March 23-26, 2019 • Phoenix, AZ (oral presentation)
Servaes S, Zhu X, Edgar CJ, States L, Grigonis D, Dhody A, Victoria T: Ultra Low Dose Fetal CT: How To Further Decrease Radiation Dose While Maintaining Diagnostic Accuracy. Society of Pediatric Radiology Annual Meeting & Postgraduate Course, May 15-19, 2018 in Nashville, Tennessee (Oral presentation).
Kaplan S, Flowers C, Irving S, Crawford J, Lin R, Schleelein L, Anupindi S, Johnson A, White A, Zhu X: Reduced-Dose Radiography Protocol for Focused Assessment of Feeding Tube Position. Society of Pediatric Radiology Annual Meeting & Postgraduate Course, May 15-19, 2018 in Nashville, Tennessee (Oral presentation)
Servaes S, Maya C, Presenza T, Mong DA, Zhu X, Ortiz M, White A: Reduced Slice CT as a Means of Lowering Patient Dose in Children with Diffuse Lung Disease. 53rd Annual Meeting and 39th Post Graduate Course of the European Society of Paediatric Radiology, May 30 – June 03, 2017, Davos, Switzerland (Oral presentation)
Kaplan SL, Edgar JC, Felice MA, Magill D, Francavilla ML, Zhu X: Gonad Shielding Increases Patient Radiation. The International Pediatric Radiology 7th Conjoint Meeting, Chicago, IL May 2016. (Oral presentation)
Kaplan SL, Zhu X: Intussusception Reduction: Effect of Contrast Selection on Radiation Dose. The International Pediatric Radiology 7th Conjoint Meeting, Chicago, IL May 2016. (Oral presentation)
Sphoorti S, Zhu X; Setser R, et al: Integration of syngo iGuide navigational software with C-arm CT images for percutaneous bone biopsies in the Interventional Radiology suite at a pediatric institution. The International Pediatric Radiology, May 2016, Chicago, Il, USA – Scientific presentation (Oral presentation)
Sphoorti S, Zhu X; Setser R, et al: Real-time fluoroscopic needle guidance using syngo iGuide for percutaneous bone biopsies at a pediatric institution. Society of Interventional Radiology, April 2016, Vancouver, BC, Canada - Scientific presentation (Oral presentation)
Sphoorti S, Zhu X; Setser R, et al: Evaluation of MR Overlay on live fluoroscopy for pediatric percutaneous extremity biopsies of exclusively MR visible bone lesions in the Interventional Radiology suite. The International Pediatric Radiology, May 2016, Chicago, Il, USA – Scientific presentation (Oral presentation)
Sphoorti S, Zhu X; Setser R, et al: Prospective evaluation of MR Overlay on real‐time fluoroscopy for percutaneous extremity biopsies for exclusively MR visible bone lesions in a pediatric Interventional Radiology setting. Society of Interventional Radiology, April 2016, Vancouver, BC, Canada - Scientific presentation (Oral presentation)
Editorial and Academic Positions
Reviewer, Journal of Pediatric Radiology
Reviewer, American Journal of Radiology
Reviewer, Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Reviewer, AAPM Annual Meeting Abstracts (annual, recurrent)
Academic and Institutional Committees
Chair, Radiology Radiation Safety Committee
Leadership and Memberships
Memberships in professional organizations
American Association of Physicists in Medicine
- Task Group 150 Committee on Acceptance Testing and Quality Control of Digital Radiographic Imaging Systems
- Pediatric Imaging Subcommittee
- Task Group No. 251 Survey of Pediatric Fluoroscopic Exposure Rates
- Task Group No. 252 Methodology for the Development of Pediatric Techniques for Computer Radiography and Digital Radiology
- 2019, President, Delaware Valley Chapter
American College of Radiology
American Health Physics Society
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