Nosebleeds

What is a nosebleed?

Nosebleeds can be scary, but they’re usually not dangerous. Also known by the medical term epistaxis, a nosebleed is any loss of blood from the tissue in the nose. The front part of the nose contains many fragile blood vessels that can be damaged easily. Most nosebleeds in children occur in this area of the nose, close to the nostrils.

Nosebleeds are fairly common in children, especially in dry climates or during the winter months. Dry air and dry heat inside homes and buildings can cause drying, cracking or crusting inside the nose.

Often, children outgrow the tendency for nosebleeds during their teenage years.

Causes

Nosebleeds can be caused by many factors, but some of the most common include:

  • Picking the nose
  • Blowing the nose too hard
  • Injury to the nose
  • Dry air
  • Colds and allergies
  • A foreign body (or object that doesn’t belong) in the nose

Sometimes, no apparent cause for a nosebleed can be found.

Treatment

To treat a nosebleed:

  • Calm your child and let him know you can help.
  • Have your child sit up and lean forward to avoid swallowing blood.
  • Pinch the nostrils together for five to 10 minutes without stopping to see if bleeding has stopped.
  • If bleeding does not stop, try the above steps one more time.
  • Do not pack your child's nose with tissues or gauze.

When to call the doctor

Sometimes, a nosebleed requires more than minor treatment at home. This can be determined by your child's primary care provider. In general, call your child's primary care provider for nosebleeds if:

  • You are unable to stop the nosebleed or it recurs.
  • Your child also has a nose injury that may indicate a more serious problem (such as a fractured nose or other trauma to the head).
  • There is a large amount or rapid loss of blood.
  • Your child feels faint, weak, ill, or has trouble breathing.
  • Your child has bleeding from other parts of the body (such as in the stool, urine or gums) or bruises easily.
  • A foreign body is stuck in your child's nose.

Preventing nosebleeds

If your child has frequent nosebleeds, you can help prevent nosebleeds from occurring by:

  • Using a cool mist humidifier in your child's room at night if the air in your home is dry. Be sure to follow the manufacturer's advice for cleaning the humidifier so that germs and mold do not grow in it.
  • Teaching your child not to pick her nose or blow it too forcefully.
  • Applying nasal saline gel (available over the counter in drugstores) inside the nostrils several times a day, especially at bedtime, to help keep the area moist. Do not use petroleum jelly.
  • Using saline (salt water) drops or a saline nose spray, as directed by your child's primary care provider.
  • Seeing your child's primary care provider for treatment of allergies that may contribute to frequent nosebleeds.