Education and Training
MD - Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC
Pediatrics - Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT
Pediatrics - Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (Acting Chief Resident)
Anesthesiology - Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (Chief Resident)
Specialized Year in Pediatric/Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesiology - Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven,
Cardiovascular Pathology - Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT
Titles and Academic Titles
William J. Greeley Endowed Chair in Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Research, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Director of Research for the Department of Anesthesiology and CCM
Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Departments and Services
Kussman BD, Laussen PC, Benni PB, McGowan FX Jr, McElhinney DB: Cerebral Oxygen Saturation in Children with Congenital Heart Disease and Chronic Hypoxemia. Anesth Analg 125(1): 234-240, 2017.
Ward CG, Hines SJ, Maxwell LG, McGowan FX, Sun LS: Neurotoxicity, general anesthesia in young children, and a survey of current pediatric anesthesia practice at US teaching institutions. Pediatric Anesthesia 26(1): 60-65, 2016.
Thomson LM, Seekell RP, McGowan FX, Kheir JN, Polizzotti BD: Freeze-thawing at point-of-use to extend shelf stability of lipid-based oxygen microbubbles for intravenous oxygen delivery. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physiochem Eng Aspects 500: 72-8, 2016.
Sun LS, Li G, Miller TLK, Salorio C, Byrne MW, Bellinger DC, Ing CH, Park R, Radcliffe J, Hays SR, DiMaggio CJ, Cooper TJ, Rauh V, Maxwell LG, Youn A, McGowan FX: Neurocognitive outcomes following a single general anesthetic exposure before age 36 months in a sibling-matched cohort: the PANDAS Study. JAMA in press, 2016.
Sun LS, Li G, Miller TL, Salorio C, Byrne MW, Bellinger DC, Ing C, Park R, Radcliffe J, Hays SR, DiMaggio CJ, Cooper TJ, Rauh V, Maxwell LG, Youn A, McGowan FX: Association Between a Single General Anesthesia Exposure Before Age 36 Months and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Later Childhood. JAMA 315(21): 2312-2320, 2016.
Levy RJ, Herbstman JB, Bosnjak ZJ, Loepke AW, McGowan FX: Biomarkers, Genetics, and Epigenetic Studies to Explore the Neurocognitive Effects of Anesthesia in Children. J Neurosurg Anesth Page: 384-388, 2016 Notes: Epub ahead of print.
He H, Poutias DN, O'Malley T, Kawata M, Kitahori K, McGowan FX: Early induction of mitochondrial oxidative and peroxidative activities promotes infant right ventricular failure. Circ Heart Failure submitted, 2016.
Fiadjoe JE, Nishisaki A, Jagannathan N, Hunyady AI, Greenberg RS, Reynolds PI, Matuszczak ME, Rehman MA, Polaner DM, Szmuk P, Nadkarni VM, McGowan FX, Litman RS, Kovatsis PG: Airway management complications in children with difficult tracheal intubation from the Pediatric Difficult Intubation (Pedi) registry: A prospective cohort analysis. Lancet Respir Med 4: 37-48, 2016 Notes: Epub ahead of Print.
DeWitt ES, Black KJ, Thiagarajan R, DiNArdo JA, Colan SD, Kheir JN, McGowan FX: Effects of commonly used inotropes on myocardial function and oxygen consumption under constant ventricular loading conditions. J Appl Physiol in press, 2016.
Wesley MC, Pereira LM, Scharp LA, Emani SM, McGowan FX Jr, DiNardo JA: Pharmacokinetics of tranexamic acid in neonates, infants, and children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology 122(4): 745-758, 2015.
Xiong D,He H, Strauss AW, James J, Tokunaga C, Powers C, Osinska S, Towbin JA, Purevjav J, Balschi JA, McGowan FX: Cardiac-specific VLCAD deficiency induces dilated cardiomyopathy and cold intolerance. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 306(3): H326-H328, 2014.
Polizzotti BD, Thomson LM, O'Connell DW, McGowan FX, Kheir JN: Optimization and characterization of stable lipid-based, oxygen-filled microbubbles by mixture design. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2014.
McGowan FX, Davis PJ: The advanced pediatric anesthesiology fellowship: Moving beyond a clinical apprenticeship. Anesth Analg 118(4): 701-703, 2014.
He H, Tao H, Xiong H, Duan SZ, McGowan FX, Mortensen RM, Balschi JA: Rosiglitazone causes cardiotoxicity via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor y-independent mitochondrial oxidative stress in mouse hearts. Toxicol Sci 138(2): 468-481, 2014.
Graham EM, Atz AM, McHugh KE, Butts RJ, Baker NL, Stroud RE, Reeves ST, Bradley SM, McGowan FX Jr, Spinale FG: Perioperative steroid treatment does not improve markers of inflammation after cardiac surgery in neonates: Results from a randomized trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 147(3): 902-908, 2014.
Costello JM, Dunbar-Masterson C, Allan CK, Gauvreau K, Newburger JW, McGowan FX Jr, Wessel DL, Mayer JE Jr, Salvin JW, Dionne RE, Laussen PC: Impact of empiric nesiritide or mirinone infusion on early postoperative recovery after Fontan surgery: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Circ Heart Fail 7(4): 596-604, 2014.
Kheir JK, Thomson L, Polizzotti BD, Wilking JN, Graham DA, Bell DC, O'Connell D, McGowan FX: Bulk manufacture of concentrated oxygen gas-filled microparticles for intravenous oxygen delivery. Adv Healthcare Mater (2), 1131-1141, 2013.
Graham EM, Taylor SN, Zyblewski SC, Wolf B, Bradley SM, Hollis BW, McGowan FX, Atz AM: Vitamin D status in neonates undergoing cardiac operations: relationship to cardiopulmonary bypass and association with outcomes. J Pediatr 162(4): 823-826, 2013.
Graham EM, Atz AM, McHugh KE, Butts RJ, Baker NL, Stroud RE, Deardorff RL, Reeves ST, Bradley SM, McGowan FX, Spinale FG: Preoperative steroid treatment does not improve markers of inflammation following cardiac surgery in neonates. J Am Coll Cardiol 147(3): 902-908, 2013.
Friehs I, McGowan FX, Cowan DB, Choi YH, Black KM, Barnett RJ, Bhasin MK, Daly C, Dillon ST, Libermann TA, Del Nido PJ, Levitsky S, McCully JD: Pressure-overload hypertrophy of the developing heart reveals divergent gene and protein pathways in left and right ventricular myocardium. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 304(5): H697-708, 2013.
Friehs I, McGowan FX, Cowan DB, Choi YH, Black KM, Barnett RJ, Bhasin MK, Daly C, Dillon ST, Libermann TA, Del Nidio PJ, Levitsky S, McCully JD: Pressure-overload hypertrophy of the developing heart reveals divergent gene and protein pathways in left and right ventricular myocardium. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 304: H697-H708, 2013.
Bartholome MD, He H, Pacak C, Dunning P, Fahey FH, McGowan FX, Cowan DB, Treves ST, Packard A: Biological characterization of F-18-labeled rhodamine B, a potential positron emission tomography perfusion tracer. Nucl Med Biol 40(8): 1043-1048, 2013.
Sun LS, Li G, DiMaggio CJ, Byrne MW, Ing C, Miller TL, Bellinger DC, Han S, McGowan FX: Feasibility and pilot study of the Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) Project. J Neurosurg Anesth 24: 382-388, 2012.
Niklova A, Ablasser K, Wyler von Ballmoos MC, Poutias D, Kaza E, McGowan FX, Moses MA, del Nido PJ, Friehs I: Endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors prevent adaptive capillary growth in left ventricular pressure overload hypertrophy. Ann Thorac Surg 94: 1509-1517, 2012.
Mehta NM, Costello JM, Bechard LJ, Johnson VM, Zurakowski D, McGowan FX, Laussen PC, Duggan CP: Resting energy expenditure after Fontan surgery in children with single-ventricle heart defects. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 36: 685.692, 2012.
Kheir JH, Scharp LA,, Borden MA, Swanson EJ, Loxley A, Reese JH, Black K, Velazquez LA, Walsh BK, Mullen KE, Graham DA, Lawlor MW, Brugnara C, Bell DC, McGowan FX: Oxygen gas-filled microparticles provide intravenous oxygen delivery. Science Transl Med 4 (140): 140ra88, 2012.
Graham EM. Atz AT, Gillis G, DeSantis S, Haney AL, Deardorff RL; Uber WE, Reeves RT, McGowan FX; Bradley SM, Spinale FG: Differential effects of aprotinin and tranexamic acid on outcomes and cytokine profiles in pediatric cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 143: 1069-1076, 2012.
Salvin JW, Scheurer MA, Laussen PC, Wypij D, Polito A, Bacha A, Pigula F, McGowan FX, Costello JM, Thiagarajan RR. : Transfusion following pediatric cardiac surgery is associated with prolonged hospital stay. Ann Thorac Surg 91: 204-210, 2011.
Goobie SM, Meier PM, Pereira LM, McGowan FX, Prescilla RP, Scharp LA, Rogers GF, Proctor MR, Meara JG, Soriano SG, Zurakowski D, Sethna NF : Efficacy of tranexamic acid in pediatric craniosynostosis surgery: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Anesthesiology 114: 862-871, 2011.
Chow M-J, He H, Zurakowski D, McGowan FX, Zhang KY: Obstruction-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. J Biomechan Engin 133: 1110-1-1110-9, 2011.
Allan CK, Newburger JW, McGrath E, Elder J, Psoinos C, Wypij D, McGowan FX: Inflammatory activation correlates with clinical outcome following cardiopulmonary bypass in infants. Anesth Analg 111: 1244-1251, 2010.
Zhou B, Ma Q, Kong SW, Hu, Campbell P, McGowan FX, Wu B, Tevosian SG, Pu WT: Fog2 regulates function and coronary vascular supply of the adult heart. J Clin Invest 119: 1462-1476, 2009.
Wolf CM, Seslar SP, den Boer K, Juraszek AL, McGowan FX, Cowan DB, del Nido PJ, Triedman JK, Berul CI, Walsh EP: Atrial remodeling after Fontan operation. J Am Coll Cardiol 104: 1737-1742, 2009.
Wesley M, Castro R, Dissanayake S, Zurakowski D, McGowan FX, DiNardo JA: The effect of milrinone on platelet activation as determined by TEG platelet mapping. Anesth Analg 108: 1425-1429, 2009.
Vitali SH, Mitsialis SA, Liang OD, Liu X, Fernandez-Gonzalez A, Christou H, McGowan FX, Kourembanas S: Divergent cardiopulmonary actions of heme oxygenase enzymatic products in chronic hypoxia. PLoS One 4 (6): e5978, 2009.
Perez AL, Bachrach E, Illigens BM, Jun SJ, Bagden E, Steffen L, Flint A,, McGowan FX, Montecino-Rodriguez E, Tidball JG, Kunkel LM. : CXCR4 enhances engraftment of muscle progenitor cells. Muscle Nerve 40: 562-572, 2009.
Odegard KC, DiNardo JA, Zurakowski D, Castro RA, McGowan FX, Laussen PC: Prospective longitudinal study of coagulation profiles in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome from stage I through Fontan completion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 137: 934-941, 2009.
McCully JD, Bhasin MK, Wakiyama H, Daly C, Guerrero MC, Dillon S, Liberman TA, Cowan DB, Mably JD, Ericsson M, Parker RA, McGowan FX, Levitsky S: Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of global ischemia and cardioprotection in the rabbit heart. Physiol Genom 38: 125-137, 2009.
Levy RJ, Nasr V, Rivera O, Roberts R, Slack M, Kanter J , Ratnayaka K, Kaplan RF, McGowan FX: Carbon monoxide exposure during routine anesthetics in children. Anesth Analg 110: 747-753, 2009.
Kitahori K, He H, Kawata M, Friehs I, Cowan DB, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX: Mechanisms of development of left ventricular dysfunction with preservation of ejection fraction during experimental infant right ventricular hypertrophy. Circulation Heart Failure 2: 599-607, 2009.
Griffiths ER, Friehs I, Scherr E, Poutias DN, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Mitochondrial electron transport dysfunction in infant pressure overload left ventricular hypertrophy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 139: 1609-1617, 2009.
Gonnella P, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX: Oral tolerization with cardiac myosin peptide (614-629) ameliorates experimental autoimmune myocarditis: role of STAT 6 genes in BALB/CJ mice. J Clin Immunol 29: 434-443, 2009.
Choi Y-H, Moran AM, Colan SD, Gonnella P, Takeuchi K, Friehs I, Cowan DB, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX.: Myocyte apoptosis occurs early during the development of pressure-overload hypertrophy in infant myocardium. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 137: 1356-1362, 2009.
Tabbutt S, Nicolson SC, Adamson PC, Zhang X, Hoffman ML, Wells W, Backer CL, McGowan FX, Tweddell JS, Bokesch P, Schreiner M: The safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of esmolol for blood pressure control immediately after repair of coarctation of the aorta in infants and children: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 136: 321-328, 2008.
Mullen MP, Wessel DL, Thomas KC, Gauvreau K, Neufeld EJ, McGowan FX, DiNardo JA: The incidence and implications of anti-heparin-platelet factor 4 antibody formation in a pediatric cardiac surgical population. Anesth Analg 107: 371-378, 2008.
Gonnella P, Waldner H, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX: Peripheral deletion of infiltrating Vb8.18.2 CD+ T cells in experimental autoimmune mice: Role of TLR-4. J Autoimmun 31: 180-187, 2008.
Choi Y-H, Cowan DB, Nathan M, Illigens B, Poutias DN, Stamm C, McGowan FX: Myocardial hypertrophy overrides the angiogenic response to hypoxia. PLoS One 3 (12: e4042. 2008.
Burch TM, McGowan FX, Kussman BD, Powell AJ, DiNardo JA: Congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis and sudden death associated with anesthesia: What's the mystery? Anesth Analg (Special Article) 107: 1848-1854, 2008.
Odegard KC, DiNardo JA, Kussman BD, Shukla A, Harrington J, Casta A, McGowan FX, Hickey PR, Bacha EA, Thiagarajan RR, Laussen PC: The frequency of anesthesia-related cardiac arrests in patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 105: 335-343, 2007.
Takeuchi K, McGowan FX, Bacha EA, Mayer JE, Zurakowski D, Otaki M, del Nido PJ: Analysis of outcome in complex double-outlet right ventricle with heterotaxy syndrome or complete atrioventricular canal defect. Ann Thorac Surg 82: 146-152, 2006.
Roy N, Friehs I, Cowan DB, Zurakowski D, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX: Dopamine induces post-ischemic cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vivo: an effect ameliorated by propofol. Ann Thorac Surg 82: 2192-2199, 2006.
Friehs I, Barillas B; Vasilyev NV; Roy R, McGowan FX; del Nido PJ. : Vascular endothelial growth factor prevents apoptosis and preserves contractile function in hypertrophied infant heart. Circulation 114: I-290-295, 2006.
Choi YH, Stamm C, Hammer PE, Kwaku KF, Marler JJ, Friehs I, Jones M, Rader CM, Roy N, Eddy MT, Treidman JK, Walsh EP, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ, Cowan DB: Cardiac conduction through engineered tissue. Am J Pathol 169: 72-85, 2006.
Bachrach E, Perez AL, Choi YH, Illigens BM, Juh SJ, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX, Li S, Flint A, Chamberlain J, Kunkel LM: Myogenic engraftment of progenitor cells following intraarterial transplantation. Muscle Nerve 200 34: 44-52, 2006.
Nathan M, Friehs I, Choi Y-H, Cowan DB, Cao-Danh H, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX: Cyclosporin A but not FK506 protects against dopamine-induced apoptosis in the stunned heart. Ann Thorac Surg 79: 1620-1626, 2005.
Kussman BD, Zurakowski D, Sullivan L, McGowan FX, Davis PJ, Laussen PC: Evaluation of plasma fentanyl concentrations in infants during cardiopulmonary bypass with low-volume circuits. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 19: 316-322, 2005.
Friehs I, Cao-Danh, Nathan M, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Impaired insulin signaling in hypertrophied hearts contributes to ischemic injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 331: 15-22, 2005.
Friehs I, Moran AM, Stamm C, Choi Y-H, Cowan DB, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Promoting angiogenesis protects severely hypertrophied hearts from ischemic injury. Ann Thorac Surg 77: 2004-2010; discussion11, 2004.
Stamm C, Friehs I, Choi YH, Zurakowski D, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ.: Cytosolic calcium in the ischemic rabbit heart: assessment by pH- and temperature-adjusted rhod-2 spectrofluorometry. Cardiovasc Res 59: 695-704, 2003.
Odegard KC, McGowan FX, Zurakowski D, DiNardo JA, Castro RA, del Nido PJ, Laussen PC. : Procoagulant and anticoagulant factor abnormalities following the Fontan procedure: increased factor VIII may predispose to thrombosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 125: 1260-1267, 2003.
Moran AM, Friehs I, Takeuchi K, Stamm C, Hammer PE, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ, Colan SD: Noninvasive serial evaluation of myocardial mechanics in pressure overload hypertrophy of rabbit myocardium. Herz 28: 52-62, 2003.
Friehs I, Cao-Danh H, Stamm C, Cowan DB, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Postnatal increase in insulin-sensitive glucose transporter expression is associated with improved recovery of postischemic myocardial function. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126: 263-271, 2003.
Cowan DB, Jones M, Garcia LM, Noria S, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX: Hypoxia and stretch regulate intercellular communication in vascular smooth muscle cells through reactive oxygen species formation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23: 1754-1760, 2003.
Takeuchi K, Simplaceanu E, McGowan FX, Tsushima T, del Nido PJ: L-arginine potentiates negative inotropic and metabolic effects to myocardium partly through the amiloride sensitive mechanism. Jpn J Physiol Jpn J. Physiol 52: 207-215, 2002.
Stamm C, Friehs I, Cowan DB, Cao-Danh H, Choi Y-H, Duebner LF, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Dopamine treatment of postischemic contractile dysfunction rapidly induces calcium-dependent pro-apoptotic signaling. Circulation 106: I290-I298, 2002.
Odegard KC, McGowan FX, Castro RC, DiNardo J, Hansen DD, Laussen PC: Coagulation abnormalities in children immediately prior to the Fontan procedure. Ann Thorac Surg 73: 1770-1777, 2002.
Odegard KC, McGowan FX, Castro RC, DiNardo J, Hansen DD, Connor C, Laussen PC: Coagulation factor abnormalities in patients with single ventricle physiology precede the Fontan operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 123: 459-463, 2002.
Munakata M, Stamm C, Friehs I, Zurakowski D, Cowan DB, Cao-Danh H, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Protective effects of protein kinase C during myocardial ischemia require activation of phosphatidyl-inositol specific phospholipase C. Ann Thorac Surg 73: 1236-1245, 2002.
Kussman BD, Devarvaram P, Hansen DD, DiNardo JA, Forbess JM, Mehrota R, McGowan FX : Anesthetic implications of primary cardiac tumors in infants and children. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anes 16: 582-586, 2002.
Davis PJ, Stiller RL, Wilson AS, McGowan FX, Egan TD, Muir KT: In vitro remifentanil metabolism: the effects of whole blood constituents and plasma butyrylcholinesterase. Anesth Analg 95: 1305-1307, 2002.
Chanani NK, Cowan DB, Takeuchi K, Poutias DN, Garcia LN, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX : Differential effects of amrinone and milrinone upon myocardial inflammatory signaling. Circulation 106: I1284-I1289, 2002.
Takeuchi K, Nagashima M, Itoh K, Minagawa M, Munakata M, Ichinoseki I, Fukui K, McGowan FX del Nido PJ. : Improving glucose metabolism and/or sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase function is warranted for immature pressure overload hypertrophied myocardium. Jpn Circ J 65: 1064-1070, 2001.
Takeuchi K, McGowan FX, Moran AM, Zurakowski D, Mayer JE, Jonas RA, del Nido PJ: Surgical outcome of double-outlet right ventricle with subpulmonary VSD. Ann Thorac Surg 71: 49-52, 2001.
Stamm C, del Nido PJ, Cowan DB, Friehs I, McGowan FX: Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha improves post-ischemic recovery of hypertrophied hearts. Circulation 104: I350-355, 2001.
Stamm C, Friehs I, Cowan DB, Cao-Danh H, Noria S, Munakata M, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ : Post-ischemic PKC inhibition impairs myocardial calcium handling and increases contractile protein calcium sensitivity. Cardiovasc Res 51: 108-121, 2001.
Stamm C, Cowan DB, Munakata M, Takeuchi K, Cao-Danh H, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX: Rapid endotoxin-induced alterations in myocardial calcium-handling: obligatory role of cardiac tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Anesthesiology 95: 1396-1405, 2001.
Schure AY, Laussen PC, McGowan FX: Mechanical cardiopulmonary support of infants and children. Semin Cardiothorac Vas Anesth 5: 46-53, 2001.
Ross AK, Davis PJ, Dear delL, Ginsberg B, McGowan FX, Stiller RD, Henson LG, Huffman C, Muir KT: Pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in anesthetized pediatric patients undergoing elective surgery or diagnostic procedures. Anesth Analg 93: 1393-1401, 2001.
MacGowan GA, McGowan FX, Du CW, Cowan DB, Solaro RJ, del Nido PJ, Koretsky AP : Ischemic dysfunction in transgenic mice expressing troponin I lacking protein kinase C phosphorylation sites. Am J Physiol 280: H835-H843, 2001.
Luppi P, Licata A, Huluszczak C, Rudert WA, Trucco G, McGowan FX, Finegold D, Boyle GA, Trucco M.: Analysis of TCR Vbeta repertoire and cytokine gene expression in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. J Autoimmun 16: 3-13, 2001.
Laussen PC, Murphy JA, Zurakowski D, Sullivan LJ, McGowan FX, Demaso DR: Bispectral index monitoring in children undergoing mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Paediatr Anaesth 11: 567-573, 2001.
Gruber EM, Laussen PC, Casta A, Zimmerman AA, Zurakowski D, Reid R, Shukla A, Odegard KC, Hickey PR, McGowan FX, Hansen DD: Stress responses in infants undergoing cardiac surgery: a randomized study of fentanyl bolus, fentanyl infusion, and fentanyl-midazolam infusion. Anesth Analg 92: 882-890, 2001.
Goobie SM, Soriano SG, Zurakowski D, McGowan FX, Rockoff MA: Hemostatic changes in pediatric neurosurgical patients as evaluated by thromboelastograph. 2001;93:887-92. Anesth Analg 93: 887-892, 2001.
Galinkin J, Davis PJ, McGowan FX, Lynn AM, Rabb RF, Yaster M, Henson LG, Blum R, Hechtman D, Maxwell L, Szmuk P, Orr R, Edwards S, Kurth CD: A randomized multicenter study of remifentanil compared to halothane in neonates and infants undergoing pyloromyotomy. Part II: Perioperative breathing patterns in neonates and infants with pyloric stenosis. Anesth Analg 93: 1987-1392, 2001.
Friehs I, Stamm C, Cao-Danh H, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Insulin-like growth factor-1 improves postischemic recovery in hypertrophied hearts. Ann Thorac Surg 72: 1650-1656, 2001.
Davis PJ, Galinkin J, McGowan FX, Lynn AM, Yaster M, Rabb MF, Krane EJ, Kurth CD, Blum RH, Maxwell L, Orr R, Szmuk P, Hechtman D, Edwards S, Henson LG: A randomized multicenter study of remifentanil compared to halothane in neonates and infants undergoing pyloromyotomy. Part I: Emergence and recovery profiles. Anesth Analg 93: 1380-6, 2001.
Cowan DB, Noria S, Stamm C, Poutias DN, Garcia LM, Poutias DM, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX: Lipopolysaccharide internalization activates endotoxin-dependent signal transduction in cardiomyocytes. Circ Res 88: 491-498, 2001.
Takeuchi K, del Nido PJ, Poutias DN, Cowan DB, Munakata M, McGowan FX. : Vesnarinone restores contractility and calcium handling in early endotoxemia. Circulation 102: III365-III369, 2000.
Sethna N, Sullivan L, Retik A, McGowan FX, DiCanzio J, Zurakowski D: Efficacy of simulated epinephrine-containing test dose after intravenous atropine during isoflurane anesthesia in children. J Region Anesth 25: 566-572, 2000.
Satou GM, McGowan FX, Colan SD: Left atrial compression from severe aortic root dilation and scoliosis. Heart Dis 2: 340-341, 2000.
Odegard KC, Kirse DJ, del Nido PJ, Laussen PC, Casta A, Booke J, Kenna MA, McGowan FX : Intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for patent ductus arteriosus. Anesth. 562-564 (eds.). 14, 2000.
Laussen PC, Bichell DP, McGowan FX, Zurakowski D, DeMaso DR, del Nido PJ: Postoperative recovery in children following a minimum vs. full-length sternotomy. Ann Thorac Surg 69: 591-596, 2000.
Cowan DB, Poutias DN, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX.: CD14-independent activation of cardiomyocyte signal transduction by bacterial endotoxin. Am J Physiol 279: H619-H629, 2000.
Casta A, Gruber EM, Laussen PC, McGowan FX, Odegard KC, Zurakowski D, Hansen DD: Parameters associated with perioperative baffle fenestration closure in the Fontan operation. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 14: 553-556, 2000.
Baker C, Keane JF, McGowan FX, Lock JE : Pulmonary artery trauma due to balloon dilation: recognition, avoidance, and management. J Am Coll Cardiol 36: 1684-1690, 2000.
Takeuchi K, del Nido PJ, Glynn P, Cao-Danh H, Poutias D, McGowan FX: Vesnarinone and amrinone reduce the systemic inflammatory response syndrome.1999;117:375-82. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 117: 375-382, 1999.
Takeuchi K, Maida K, Tanaka S, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Superior myocardial protection with a new histidine-buffered crystalloid cardioplegic solution in clinical trial. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 47: 148-152, 1999.
Takeuchi K, Glynn P, Cao-Danh H, Buenaventura P, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX: Increased myocardial calcium cycling and reduced myofibrillar calcium sensitivity in early endotoxemia. Surgery 126: 231-238, 1999.
Takeuchi K, Cao-Danh H, Kawai A, Ohkada A, Konishi H, Zhang S, Todo S, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Prolonged preservation (24 hours) of blood-perfused canine heart with glycolysis-promoting cardioplegia solution. Ann Thorac Surg 68: 903-907, 1999.
Munakata M, Stamm C, Takeuchi K, Poutias D, Friehs I, Cowan DB, Cao-Danh H, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Protein kinase C activation is protective in the ischemic heart. Surg Forum 50: 98-100, 1999.
Friehs I, Moran AM, Cao-Danh, Takeuchi K, Rader CM, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Impaired glucose transporter activity in pressure overload hypertrophy is an early indicator of progression to failure. Circulation 100(suppl II): II-187-II-193, 1999.
Takeuchi K, McGowan FX, Cao-Danh H, Friehs I, Rader C, del Nido PJ: Upregulation of insulin-sensitive glucose transporter improves ischemic protection of hypertrophied heart. 1998;98:II234-9. Circulation 98: II234-239, 1998.
Takeuchi K, Cao-Danh H, Friehs I, Glynn P, D'Agostino D, Simplaceneau E, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Administration of fructose-1,6-diphosphate during early reperfusion significantly improves recovery of contractile function in the post-ischemic heart. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 116: 335-343, 1998.
Montenegro LA, Ward A, McGowan FX Jr, Davis PJ: New directions in pediatric solid organ transplantation. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anes 12: 457-472, 1998.
Luppi P, McGowan FX, Rudert WA, Zanone MM, Stassi G, Trucco G, Finegold D, del Nido PJ, Trucco M: Coxsackievirus B3 triggers a superantigen-driven autoimmune reaction promoting acute fulminant myocarditis. Circulation 98: 777-785, 1998.
Zund Z, Uezono S, Stahl GL, Dzus AL, McGowan FX, Hickey PR, Colgan SP: Hypoxia enhances induction of endothelial ICAM-1: role for metabolic acidosis and proteasomes. 1997;273:C1571-80. Am J Physiol 273: C1571-1580, 1997.
Wilson AJ, Stiller RL, Davis PJ, Fedel G, Chakravorti S, Israel BA, McGowan FX: Fentanyl and alfentanil plasma protein binding in preterm and term neonates. Anesth Analg 84: 315-318, 1997.
Patel RI, Davis PJ, Orr RJ, Ferrari LR, Rimar S, Hannallah RS,: It, Colingo K, Donlon JV, Haberkern CM, McGowan FX Jr., Prillaman BA, Parasuraman TV, Creed MR: Single dose of ondansetron prevents postoperative vomiting in pediatrics outpatients. Anesth Analg 85: 538-545, 1997.
Luss H, McGowan FX, Li R-K, Shapiro RA, Tzeng E, Yoneyama T, Hatekayama K, Geller DA, Mickle DAG, Simmons RL, Billiar TR: Dedifferentiated human ventricular cardiac myocytes express inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA but not protein in response to IL-1, TNF, IFN, and LPS. J Mol Cell Cardiol 29: 1153-1165, 1997.
Friehs I, Cao-Danh H, Takahashi S, Buenaventura P, Glynn P, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Adenosine prevents protein kinase C activation during hypothermic ischemia. Circulation 96(II-221-II-226), 1997.
Davis PJ, Lerman J, Suresh S, McGowan FX, Cote CJ, Landsman I, Henson LG: A randomized multicenter study of remifentanil compared with alfentanil, isoflurane, or propofol in anesthetized pediatric patients undergoing elective strabismus surgery. Anesth Analg 84: 982-989, 1997.
Takeuchi, K, Cao-Danh H, Buenaventura P, Simplaceneau E, Glynn P, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX: Cytokine-induced myocardial dysfunction is mediated by protein kinase C. Surg Forum 47: 80-81, 1996.
Takahashi S, Cao-Danh H, Buenaventura P, Friehs I, Glynn P, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Expression of protein kinase C isoforms during cardiac development in rabbit heart. Surg Forum 47: 264-266, 1996.
Takeuchi K, McGowan FX, Cao-Danh H, Simplaceneau E, Takahashi S, Glynn P, del Nido PJ: Endotoxin-induced nitric oxide production impairs cardiac contractility and energetics. Surg Forum 46: 112-114, 1995.
Takeuchi K, McGowan FX, Cao-Danh H, Glynn P, Simplaceneau E, del Nido PJ: L-arginine potentiates ischemia-reperfusion injury to myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1995;27:1405-1414. 27: 1405-1414, 1995.
Takeuchi K, Buenaventura P, Cao-Danh H, Glynn P, Simplaceneau E, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ : Improved protection of the hypertrophied left ventricle by histidine-containing cardioplegia. Circulation 92 (Suppl II): II-395-II-399, 1995.
McGowan FX, Davis PJ, Siewers RD, del Nido PJ: Endothelin-1 mediated coronary constriction in neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass. Reversal by nitroglycerin. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 109: 88-99, 1995.
Luss H, Watkins SC, Freeswick PD, Imro AK, Nussler AK, Billiar TR, Simmons RL, del Nido PJ, McGowan FX: Characterization of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in endotoxemic rat cardiac myocytes in vivo and following cytokine exposure in vitro. J Mol Cell Cardiol 27: 2015-2029, 1995.
Davis PJ, Tome JA, McGowan FX, Cohen IT, Latta K, Felder H: Preanesthetic medication with intranasal midazolam for very brief pediatric surgical procedures: Effect on recovery and hospital discharge times. Anesthesiology 82: 2-5, 1995.
Davis PJ, McGowan FX, Landsman I, Maloney K, Hoffman : Effect of anti-emetic therapy on recovery and hospital discharge time: A double-blind assessment of ondansetron, droperidol, and placebo in pediatric patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. 1995;83:956-960. Anesthesiology 83: 956-960, 1995.
Buenaventura P, Cao-Danh H, Takahashi S, Glynn P, McGowan FX, delNido PJ: Phospholipase C and intracellular signaling in the ischemic heart. Surg Forum 1995 46: 219-211, 1995.
Buenaventura P, Cao-Danh H, Glynn P, Takeuchi K, Takahashi S, Simplaceneau E, McGowan FX, delNido PJ: Protein kinase C activation in the heart: Effects on calcium and contractile proteins. Ann Thorac Surg 60: 5505-5508, 1995.
Woelfel SK, Brandom BW, McGowan FX, Gronert BJ, Cook DR: Neuromuscular effects of 600mg/kg-1 of rocuronium in infants during nitrous oxide-halothane anaesthesia. Paed Anesth 4: 173-177, 1994.
McGowan FX, Takeuchi K, del Nido PJ, Davis PJ, Lancaster JR, Hattler BG: Myocardial effects of interleukin-2. Transplant Proceed 26: 209-211, 1994.
McGowan FX, Davis PJ, Sobek ML, Allen JW, del Nido PJ, Downing SE: Endothelium-dependent regulation of coronary tone in the neonatal pig. Anesth Analg 79: 1094-1101, 1994.
McGowan FX, Cao-Danh H, Takeuchi K, Davis PJ, del Nido PJ: Enhanced neonatal myocardial preservation using a highly buffered, low calcium solution. 1994; 108:772779. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 108: 772-779, 1994.
Davis PJ, Cohen IT, McGowan FX, Latta K: Recovery characteristics of desflurane vs. halothane for maintenance of anesthesia in pediatric ambulatory patients. Anesthesiology 80:: 298-302, 1994.
Buenaventura P, Takeuchi K, Glynn P, Cao-Danh H, McGowan F, del Nido P. : Inflammatory injury to the heart: The effect of protein kinase C activation. Surg Forum 45: 309-311, 1994.
Woelfel SK, Brandom BW, McGowan FX, Cook DR: Clinical pharmacology of mivacurium in pediatric patients less than two years old during nitrous oxide-halothane anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1993; 77:713-720. Anesth Analg 77: 773-720, 1993.
Takeuchi K, Cao-Danh H, Glynn P, Simplaceanu E, McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Negative inotropic and metabolic effects of the nitric oxide precursor L-arginine: Partial prevention by amiloride. Surg Forum 44: 264-266, 1993.
McGowan FX, Ikegami M, del Nido PJ, Motoyama EK, Kurland G, Davis PJ, Siewers RD: Cardiopulmonary bypass significantly reduces surfactant activity in children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 106: 968-977, 1993.
Davis PJ, Stiller RL, McGowan FX, Chakravorti S, Cook DR: Decreased protein binding of alfentanil in plasma from children with kidney or liver failure. Paed Anaesth 3: 19-22, 1993.
McGowan FX, Lee FA, Chen V, Downing SE: Oxidative metabolism and mechanical function in reperfused neonatal pig heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 24: 831-840, 1992.
McGowan FX, Kenna MA, Fleming JA, O'Connor TZ: Increased perioperative risk of adenotonsillectomy in children with a history of prematurity. Pediatr Pulmonol 13: 221-226, 1992.
McGowan FX: Cardiovascular and airway interactions. Int Anesthesiol Clin 30: 21-44, 1992.
Hellenbrand WE, Fahey JT, McGowan FX, Weltin GG, Kleinman CS: Transesophageal echocardiographic guidance of transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect. Am J Cardiol 66: 207-213. 1990.
McGowan FX, Reiter MJ, Pritchett ELC, Shand DG: Verapamil plasma binding: relationship to alpha-1 acid glycoprotein and drug efficacy. Clin Pharmacol Ther 33: 485-92, 1983.
McGowan FX, Nash PV, Bjornsson TD: Assay-dependent kinetics of heparin: Evidence for in vivo activation of heparin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 18: 677-84, 1983.
Bjornsson TD, Cochetto DM, McGowan FX, Verghese CP, Sedor F: Nomogram for estimating creatinine clearance. Clin Pharmacokinet 8: 365-9, 1983.
Sun LS, Li G, Byrne M, Ing C, DiMaggio CJ, Miller T, Bellinger D, Han S, Roh A, McGowan FX: Pilot study of the pediatric anesthesia and neurodevelopment assessment (PANDA) project. Anesthesiology Page: A141, 2012.
He H, Poutias DN, Favre E, Balschi JA, McGowan FX: Upregulation of NOX4 triggers mitochondrial dysfunction during the progression of infant right ventricular hypertrophy. Circulation 126: A13534, 2012.
McGowan FX, Mukherjee R, Campbell P, Friehs I, Poutias DN, Baicu C, ZileMR, Spinale F, He H: Myocardial matrix dysregulation occurs in early in infant right ventricular pressure overload. Circulation 124: A15911, 2011.
Kussman B, Laussen P, Benni P, McElhinney D, McGowan F.: Validation of the FORE-SIGHT tissue oximeter for somatic oxygenation in children. Anesthesiology Page: LBC01, 2011.
Kheir JN, Black K, Reese J, McGowan FX: Lipid-based oxygen microparticles do not change in size following intravenous or intraosseous injection. Circulation Page: A259, 2011.
He H, Kawata M, Poutias DN, Campbell PH, Ablasser K, Friehs H, McGowan FX: AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent autophagy in the transition of right ventricular hypertrophy to failure. Circulation 124: A13638, 2011.
Kussman BD, Powell A, McGowan FX: Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia: Non-Bypass Procedures. Smith's Anesthesia for Infants and Children (9th Edition). Davis PJ, Cladis FP, Motoyama EK (eds.). Elsevier/Mosby, Page: 674-712, 2016.
DiNardo JA, Shukla AC, McGowan FX: Anesthesia for Congenital Heart Surgery. Smith's Anesthesia for Infants and Children (9th Edition). Davis PJ, Cladis FP, Motoyama EK (eds.). Elsevier/Mosby, Page: 605-673, 2016.
Kussman BD, McGowan FX: Anesthesia for patients with congenital heart disease undergoing non-cardiac or non-cardiopulmonary bypass procedures. Smith's Anesthesia for Infants and Children (8th Edition) Davis PJ, Claddis FC, Motoyama EK Philadelphia: WB Saunders (8th Edition) 2011;pp674-712 (eds.). Philadelphia: WB Saunders, Page: 674-712, 2011.
DiNardo JA, Shukla AC, McGowan FX: Anesthesia for pediatric heart, lung, and heart-lung transplantation. Smith's Anesthesia for Infants and Children (8th Edition). Davis PJ, Claddis FC (eds.), (eds.). Philadelphia: WB Saunders, Page: 605-673, 2011.
del Nido PJ, McGowan FX: Surgical approaches and cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital heart surgery. In Sabiston and Spencer Surgery of the Chest (8th Edition). Selke FW, del Nido PJ, Swanson SJ (eds.). Philadelphia: WB Saunders, Page: 1709-1733, 2010.
Shukla AC, Steven JM, McGowan FX: Cardiovascular physiology and pharmacology in children. A Practice of Anesthesiology for Infants and Children (Fourth Edition) Cote CJ, Lerman JR, Todres ID (eds.). Philadelphia: Elsevier, Page: 361-397, 2009.
McGowan FX, del Nido PJ: Surgical approaches and cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital heart surgery. Sabiston and Spencer Surgery of the Chest (7th Edition). Selke FW, del Nido PJ (eds.). Philadelphia: Elsevier, Page: 1825-1850, 2005.
Shukla AC, McGowan FX.: Anesthesia for pediatric heart, lung, and heart-lung transplantation. Smith's Anesthesia for Infants and Children (7th Edition). Davis PJ, Motoyama EK (eds.). Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2005.
McGowan FX, Steven JM.: Cardiovascular Physiology and Pharmacology in Children. In: A Practice of Anesthesiology for Infants and Children. Cote CJ, Todres ID, Ryan JF, Goudsouzian NG (eds.). Philadelphia: WB Saunders, Page: 353-389, 2001.
Steven JM, McGowan FX: Neuraxial blockade for pediatric cardiac surgery: lessons yet to be learned. (Editorial). Anesth Analg 90: 1011-1013, 2000.
Burrows FA, McGowan FX: Neurodevelopmental consequences of cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia. Greeley WJ (eds.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Page: 136-174, 1996.
Chan KH, Riding KH, McGowan FX, Stool SE: Endoscopic Surgery of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract. Atlas of Pediatric Otolaryngology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, Page: 419-445, 1994.
McGowan FX, Bailey P: Anesthesia for heart, heart-lung, and lung transplantation. Transplantation Anesthesiology. Cook DR, David PL (eds.). New York: Raven Press, Page: 85-157, 1994.
McGowan FX, Snelling LK, Zucker HA: Case 40. Case Studies in Pediatric Intensive Care. Rogers MC, Helfaer MA (eds.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, Page: 269-274, 1993.
McGowan FX.: Anesthesia for Major Head and Neck Surgery. Anesthesia for Ophthalmic and Otolaryngologic Surgery. McGoldrick KE (eds.). Philadelphia: WB Saunders, Page: 64-89, 1991.
McGowan FX, Chlebowski S: Renal and Endocrine Disorders The Pediatric Anesthesia Handbook. Bell C, Hughes C, Oh TH (eds.). St. Louis: Mosby Year Book, 1990.
McGowan FX, Wagner GS. : The Electrocardiogram in Chronic Lung Disease. In: Pulmonary Heart Disease. Boston/The Hague. Rubin LJ (eds.). Martinus/Nijhoff, Page: 117-134, 1984.
Posters and Presentations
Dec, 2012,"Ways to Use and Abuse Blood Products During Congenital Cardiac Surgery" Invited Speaker, Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society, Miami, FL
Nov, 2012,"Coagulation Issues in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: The Good, the Bad, and the Sticky"; "SNPs, ChiPs, and Biomarkers"; and "Accreditation of Pediatric Anesthesiology; The US Experience". Invited Distinguished Lecturer, Australian-New Zealand Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPANZA), New Zealand, Australia
Oct, 2012,"What to Do When You Can't Find a Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesiologist" Clinical Forum Organizer and Participant, American Society of Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting, Washington, DC
Oct, 2012,"Surgery in the Adult with Congenital Heart Disease" Refresher Course Lecturer, American Society of Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting, Washington, DC
Sep, 2012,"The Systemic Inflammatory Response to Pediatric Cardiac Surgery" and "Injury and Repair of the Infant Right Ventricle" Visiting Professor, National Children's Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
Feb, 2012,"Oxygen and Oxygen Toxicity in Congenital Cardiac Surgery" Invited Speaker, Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society, Tampa, FL
Nov, 2011,"Advances in Physiology and Pharmacology in Anesthesia and Critical Care"; "The Adult with Congenital Heart Disease"& "Current Status of Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity", Invited Speaker Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Isle of Palms, SC
Oct, 2011, Invited Speaker and Visiting Professor, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
Oct, 2011,"Cerebral Monitoring in Single Ventricle Surgery" Invited Participant, Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia Problem-Based Learning, Society for Pediatric Anesthesia Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL
Apr, 2011,"Implications of Board Certification in Pediatric Anesthesiology", Invited Speaker, Fundamentals of Pediatric Anesthesia/Society for Pediatric Anesthesia San Diego, CA
Apr, 2011,"Con: Early Extubation — What the Fast-trackers Don't Want You to Know", Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society, San Diego, CA
Apr, 2011,"Con: Early Extubation — What the Fast-trackers Don't Want You to Know", Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society, San Diego, CA
Feb, 2011,"Fourth Annual John J. Downes Lecture in Pediatric Anesthesiology and "Fourth Annual John J. Downes Lecture in Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine: How Come We Don't Know What We Still Don't Know"; "The Inflammatory Response to Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass"; "Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Infant RV Dysfunction"; "Anesthetic Issues for Infant Cardiac Catheterization" Cardiology 2011, Phoenix, AZ
Awards and Honors
2015, First Annual Award for Fellow Teaching Excellence, Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
2011-2013, J.G. Reves Chair and Professor, Medical University of South Carolina
2010, "Francis X. McGowan Endowed Chair in Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia" established by Children's Hospital Boston and Children's Hospital Boston Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine
2009-present, "America's Top Pediatricians" (annually since 2009)
2008, President's Special Recognition Award, Society for Pediatric Anesthesia
2007, "Fellow Teacher of the Year Award", Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital Boston
2006-2011, Children's Hospital Boston Endowed Chair in Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia
2003, Master of Arts, Harvard University (Honorary)
1999, "Teacher of the Year Award", Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital Boston
1998-present, "Best Doctors in America" (annually since 1998)
1993-1995, Young Investigator Award, Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research/Stuart Pharmaceuticals
1992, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh Ambassador Award
1992, B.B. Sankey Anesthesia Advancement Award, International Anesthesia Research Society
1991, The University of Pittsburgh Department of Anesthesiology Teaching Award
1989, The R.D. Dripps Award, Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine
1986, Morris Y. Krosnick Award, Department of Pediatrics, Yale University
1981-1982, Pharmaceutical Manufacturer's Association Foundation Fellowship in Clinical Pharmacology
1980, Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center Medical Student Fellowship, Duke University School of Medicine
1975, National Science Foundation High School Honors Science Program, Michigan State University
Editorial and Academic Positions
2002-Present, Reviewer, American Journal of Physiology
2001-Present, Reviewer, Circulation
1998-Present, Reviewer, Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
1998-Present, Reviewer, Annals of Thoracic Surgery
1996-Present, Reviewer, Circulation Research
1996-Present, Reviewer, Anesthesiology
1994-Present, Reviewer, Anesthesia and Analgesia
Academic and institutional committees
2017-present, Co-Chair, Biomedical Informatics Search Committee, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine
2016-present, Scholarship Oversight Committee, CHOP Cardiology Fellow
2016-present, Innovative Clinical Programs Workgroup, Cardiac Center
2016-present, Co-Chair, Research Work Group, Cardiac Center
2016-present, Chair, Research Council for the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine
2016-present, Co-Chair, "Understanding and Treating Rare and Complex Disorders" Work Group
2016-present, Radiation/Sedation/Anesthesia Operations Planning and Implementation Committee
2015-present, Operational Planning and Implementation Committee for Radiology/Anesthesia/Sedation
2015-present, Operational Governance Oversight Committee for Radiology/Anesthesia/Sedation
2015-present, Scholarship Oversight Committee of Cardiology Brian Snarr
2015-present, Neurocardiac Research Group
2015-present, Chair, Sedation Committee
2014-present, Research Trainee Advisory Committee
2014-present, Cardiac Center of Research Excellence Governance Committee
2014-present, Committee on Appointments and Promotions (COAP), Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care
2014-present, Chair, Anesthesiology Research Review Committee
2013-present, Chair, Department of Anesthesiology Research Executive Committee
2013-present, Research Professors' Committee, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care
2013-present, Cardiac Data and Governance and Reporting Committee
Leadership and Memberships
Memberships in Professional Organizations
2012-present, Society for Pediatric Anesthesia Australia and New Zealand (SPANZA) (Grant and Awards Review Panel)
1992-present, International Society for Heart Research
1987-present, International Anesthesia Research Society
2007-present, Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research, Board of Directors
2006-present, Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society
- 2007-present, Database Design and Implementation Committee
2006-present, American Academy of Pediatrics, Fellow
2001-present, American Physiological Society
1989-present, Society for Pediatric Anesthesia
1988-present, American Association for the Advancement of Science
1988-present, American Academy of Pediatrics
1987-present, American Society of Anesthesiologists
Patient Experience Ratings
About the Patient Experience Rating System
The Patient Experience Rating is an average of all responses to the care provider related questions shown above from our nationally-recognized Press Ganey Patient Satisfaction Survey. Patients that are treated in outpatient or hospital environments may receive different surveys, and the volume of responses will vary by question.
Responses are measured on a scale of 1 to 5 with 5 being the best score.
We are committed to true transparency. However, to ensure the comments are fair and correctly attributed, we review each one before posting to the website. We exclude entire comments that disclose patient's protected health information, are off-topic, or include other confidential or inappropriate content. Comments will appear on provider bios only if providers have a minimum number of comments.
Comments are shared internally for education purposes to ensure that we are doing our very best for the patients and families for whom we are privileged to care.
The comments are submitted by patients and families and reflect their views and opinions. The comments are not endorsed by and do not reflect the views of Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.