Technical advances in flexible bronchoscopy have revolutionized the diagnosis and care of adults with lung cancer. Minimally invasive techniques for transbronchial lung and lymph node biopsies under endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or CT-guidance have replaced surgical biopsy as the standard of care. These procedures are typically performed in outpatient settings with substantially lower risks and morbidity than the surgical approaches to diagnosis. Unfortunately, these procedures have not been widely adapted for use in children and until recently, surgical biopsy was often the only option. At CHOPs Pulmonary Advanced Diagnostic Center, these nonsurgical diagnostic methods have been successfully adapted for use in children with difficult-to-diagnose infections, malignancy and autoimmune, genetic and inflammatory disorders.
Three learning objectives
- Describe advanced diagnostic bronchoscopy techniques including endobronchial ultrasound and CT navigational bronchoscopy
- Compare advanced bronchoscopy procedures with alternative methods of obtaining lung and lymph node tissue for diagnostic purposes
- Review literature on diagnostic yield of transbronchial lung biopsy and transbronchial lymph node aspiration
Related specialties: pulmonary and sleep medicine, general pediatrics