Foot and Ankle Deformities
Acquired foot and ankle deformities
Acquired deformities may have several causes:
- Trauma (injury) to the growth plate
- Trauma (injury) to joint surfaces of joints
- Fracture malunions
- Neuromuscular deformities (muscular dystrophies, Charcot-Marie Tooth disease, tethered cord, spasticity infection or tumors)
Congenital foot and ankle deformities
Congenital deformities of the foot and ankle may appear at any age — from newborn through adolescence. These deformities include:
- The "hooked foot." (also called metatarsus adductus, metatarsus varus, metatarsus adductovarus, and SKEW foot). The foot is twisted inward in relation to the heel.
- Vertical talus. This is a severe type of flat foot.
- Hallux valgus and bunions. The great toe overlaps the second toe.
- Bunions,abnormal enlargements of the joint at the base of the great toe. They are the result of inflammation.
- Flatfoot (pes planus, pes valgus). The arch of the foot is absent. There are several forms of flatfoot:
- Flexible flatfoot
- Flexible flatfoot with tight Achilles tendon
- Tarsal coalition. This condition occurs when joints in the foot or heel fail to properly form during development.
- Peroneal spastic flatfoot
- Calcaneovalgus foot. The foot is sharply angled at the heel and pointing upward. In some cases, the top of the foot touches the shinbone.
- Accessory navicular. In this condition, the navicular bone in the center of the foot above the arch collapses.
- Toe deformities:
- Hammer toes. A deformity that causes the toe's joints to buckle, cocking the toe upward.
- Mallet toe. A deformity that causes the joint at the end of the toe to buckle.
- Claw toe. A deformity that involves abnormal positions of all three joints of the toe.
- Polydactyly. An extra toe.
- Complex cross fusion (APERTS Syndrome). This rare deformity is a syndactyly (fusion) of the toes.
- Congenitally short toes.
- Trevor's syndrome (Epiphysealis dysplasia hemimelica). This disorder affects bone joints. It is characterized by overgrowth of the cartilage on the end (epiphysis) of one or more of the long bones (carpal or tarsal bones) in the hand or foot.
- Haglund's deformity. This is a heel bone disorder.
- Osteochondrosis (osteochondritis) dissecans affects bone formation in the epiphysis or growing part of the skeleton. It includes:
- Kohler's disease. This occurs when the foot's navicular bone loses its blood supply.
- Freiberg's disease. When this occurs, the second metatarsal bone loses blood circulation and dies.
- Cavus foot. This is a high arched foot.
- Growth anomalies.
- Muscle imbalance deformities.
How we can help – treatment options
Treatment will be based on our expert evaluation of your child's condition and the likelihood for a good outcome. Orthopaedic surgeons at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia may treat foot and ankle disorders and deformities with the following:
- Physical therapy
- Surgery, including:
- Soft tissue and bone reconstruction
- Gradual correction with external fixation (Ilizarov and other external fixation devices.)