Age Groups and Vaccines: Adults
What vaccines might I need?
- Annual influenza vaccine
- Tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis (Tdap) for all adults especially those who will be around young babies and children, and then Tdap or tetanus and diphtheria (Td) booster every 10 years.
Pregnant women are recommended to get the Tdap vaccine during each pregnancy between 27 and 36 weeks’ gestation. Although any time during this window is acceptable, public health officials recommend getting the vaccine as early as possible during this window. Pregnant women who do not receive the vaccine during pregnancy should still get a dose before being discharged from the hospital.
- Varicella (chickenpox) for adults who did not have the disease or a previous immunization
- Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) for adults less than 50 years old who did not have the diseases or a previous immunization
- COVID-19 vaccine for all adults, number of doses will depend on your vaccination history, overall health and current recommendations, so it will be useful to speak with your healthcare provider.
- Hepatitis B vaccine for all adults between 19-59 years of age who were not previously vaccinated. Individuals 60 years of age and older may be recommended to get this vaccine based on their risk factors, but any adult in this age group may also get this vaccine if they were not previously vaccinated and wish to be protected.
Adults up to 45 years of age
- Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine; given in three doses for those starting the vaccine series at 15 years of age or older. While HPV vaccine is recommended for all 11- to 12-year-olds, those younger than 45 years of age who did not receive the vaccine may, in discussions with their healthcare providers, decide that they can benefit from getting the HPV vaccine.
Adults 50 and older
- Two doses of shingles vaccine separated by two to six months
Adults 60 years and older
One dose of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine
Adults 65 years and older
- Pneumococcal vaccine; doses and versions needed depend upon pre-existing conditions and previous pneumococcal vaccination history; check with your doctor to determine your specific needs.
Other vaccines you might need
Other vaccines that may be recommended depending on your risk factors (e.g., age, lifestyle, or medical conditions) include hepatitis A, and the meningococcal vaccines. Additionally, there are recommendations for pneumococcal and RSV vaccines in the adult age groups not mentioned above.
You can learn more by reviewing the schedule developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the “Vaccines and Adults: A Lifetime of Health” booklet offered by the Vaccine Education Center.
When should I get the vaccines?
The best time to get vaccines is when you are getting your regular physical exam. However, if you are in the office for a mild illness or condition, you can talk to your doctor about receiving vaccines at a follow-up appointment or by scheduling a special visit. If you get vaccines from your pharmacist, be sure to share that information with your healthcare provider, so that your medical record is complete.
The influenza vaccine is the only vaccine that needs to be given at a particular time of the year. While this vaccine can be given anytime between October and April, you should plan to get the vaccine before influenza begins circulating in your community because protection takes about two weeks to develop after immunization.
Where can I get vaccines?
The best place to get vaccines is at your doctor's office because it will be part of your medical record. However, you can always notify your doctor's office if you receive a vaccine elsewhere. It is also useful for you to maintain your own immunization record.
Other places that offer vaccines include public health departments and clinics. In many cases, pharmacies also offer vaccines. Your doctor and local health department are the best resources for information on where to get the vaccine.
How can I prepare best for my visit?
- Bring your immunization record to the visit with you, particularly if you are receiving immunizations outside of your primary care provider’s office.
- Write down any questions you have and bring the list with you to the visit. You can also use the free Vaccines on the Go mobile app for recording your questions (in the “Connect” section under “Save notes or questions”).
- Be sure to ask vaccine-related questions before the office staff comes in with the vaccine. Detailed questions are best discussed with your primary care provider instead of at a vaccine clinic or pharmacy location.
- Read the Vaccine Information Sheets and any other materials that the office staff provides to you.
- Consider using this CARD handout to ensure a more positive experience for you. The CARD system encourages planning ahead to be prepared when it comes to finding Comfort, Asking questions, Relaxing yourself, and Distracting yourself if you are apprehensive.
Why doesn't my doctor suggest that I get vaccines?
Many doctors are very good at asking about your vaccination status during a physical or routine check-up. However, most adults only go to the doctor when they are having a specific health issue, so the doctor is often focused on figuring out what is going on at that time and may fail to mention vaccines. This is one reason that it is so important for you and your doctor to work together to make sure that you have received the vaccines that you require.
Will my insurance cover vaccines?
Not all insurance companies will pay for all vaccines, so it is important to check with your insurer as to their specific policies. That said, many insurers will cover vaccines that are recommended because it is in their best interest financially. It is much more economical for them to pay for a vaccine than to pay for your treatment or hospitalization from the disease.
If your insurance company does not cover a vaccine that you require, there are some other options. First, check with your employee health or human resources department. Many employers will cover vaccines if you are at risk for the disease through your occupational activities. For vaccines like influenza, it is often more economical for them to offer the vaccine than to have you miss work with the illness. Second, check with your local health department. Even if they can't direct you to a resource for a free vaccine, they may be able to tell you where you can get the vaccine at a reduced rate. Finally, check your local pharmacies. They may have competitive pricing or incentives for vaccinations as they are hoping you will come to them and not their competitor to be vaccinated.
About the shingles vaccine
The shingles vaccine, called Shingrix®, is recommended for adults 50 years of age and older. It is administered in two doses separated by two to six months. Even if you received the older version, called Zostavax®, you are recommended to get the current version because it induces better protection against both the rash and severe, long-lasting pain caused by the disease. Zostavax is no longer available.
Shingles is caused by a reactivation or reawakening of a chickenpox infection that could have occurred years or decades before. When the old chickenpox infection reawakens, it travels down the nerves and causes a rash and severe pain. The pain often lasts longer than three months and is one of the most debilitating pains in medicine. Sometimes shingles affects the eye and causes blindness. Shingles affects about 1 million Americans every year.
How do I know what vaccines I received?
Many factors can contribute to whether or not you got a certain vaccine including, among others, whether it was required, whether your doctor had it in stock, and whether your parents took you to get it.
To know which vaccines you received, you should try to locate your immunization record. Immunize.org has some tips for doing so on their website.
If you are not able to locate your records, you may be able to get a blood test to help determine the diseases to which you are immune. In some cases, your healthcare provider may simply recommend getting the vaccines since an extra dose would not be harmful.
Materials in this section are updated as new information and vaccines become available. The Vaccine Education Center staff regularly reviews materials for accuracy.
You should not consider the information in this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family's personal health. You should not use it to replace any relationship with a physician or other qualified healthcare professional. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult your physician or, in serious cases, seek immediate assistance from emergency personnel.