Types of Immunity
Have you ever thought about how immunity works? If so, you might have realized that immunity keeps us from becoming sick in different ways. Two types of immunity exist — active and passive:
- Active immunity occurs when our own immune system is responsible for protecting us from a pathogen.
- Passive immunity occurs when we are protected from a pathogen by immunity gained from someone else.
Both of these different types of immunity can be acquired in different ways.
A third category, community immunity, does not involve physical components of the immune system for protection, but is still worth discussion in this capacity.
So, let’s take a closer look at each.
Individuals rely on active immunity more so than passive immunity. Active immunity is created by our own immune system when we are exposed to a potential disease-causing agent (i.e., pathogen). Most of the time, we are exposed to these potential pathogens naturally throughout the course of our day — in the air we breathe, the food we eat, and the things we touch. Luckily, most of these exposures are to agents that will not result in disease, either because they are harmless or because our immune system works to neutralize them.
In addition to “fighting off” these pathogens, active immunity is important because it lasts a long time in the form of immunologic memory. Immunologic memory consists of B and T cells that can recognize a particular pathogen (see "Adaptive immune system"). These cells circulate at low levels in our bodies and if “activated” by recognizing that pathogen in their travels, they quickly start to multiply and signal other elements of the immune system to activate as well. Memory cells are crucial for two reasons. First, they allow our immune systems to respond quickly. Second, they are specific for the pathogen, so the immune response is ready the moment the pathogen is encountered (see "Immunologic memory").
Because we don’t know about most of the work our immune system does, we often do not think about how busy it is. But, the reality is that like our hearts and lungs, our immune system is constantly working to keep us healthy. This effort is evidenced by the fact that our immune system generates grams of antibodies every single day!
Vaccines contribute to active immunity by providing us with a controlled way to create an immune response. When a vaccine is introduced, our immune system treats it like any other exposure. It works to stop the “assault” and, in the process, immunologic memory develops. Because vaccines are designed such that they do not cause illness, we gain the benefits of the exposure without the risks associated with fighting off a natural infection. In this way, vaccines offer our immune systems a chance to “train” for a future encounter and provide us with a “shortcut” to protection. We gain the immunity that follows surviving a natural infection without having to pay the price of natural infection.
Passive immunity, or immunity gained in a way other than from one’s own immune system, can occur in a few ways and can be life-saving. However, passive immunity is short-lived because the antibodies are not continually replenished as they would be in an individual whose immune system is responding directly. Passive immunity can occur in a couple of ways:
Unborn and newly born babies are protected by antibodies from the maternal immune system. These antibodies are shared in two ways: across the placenta and in breast milk.
- Placenta and circulation — When a woman is pregnant, her blood circulates through the placenta to deliver nourishment and protection to the developing fetus. As the blood circulates, so do the antibodies and immune system cells that travel in blood. Although developing fetuses are not typically exposed to any pathogens in utero, they are exposed to viruses and bacteria during and immediately after birth. The types and levels of antibodies in a baby’s blood at birth reflect those of the mother.
- Breast milk — Babies also get antibodies from breast milk, particularly from a protein-rich version of breast milk supplied in the first few days after birth known as colostrum. Colostrum, which is produced in the first three to five days after birth, contains higher levels of antibodies that protect the intestinal surface (immunoglobulin A or IgA) and lower levels of nutritional ingredients than milk produced in the weeks following birth. This transfer of antibodies from mother to child suggests its importance in the period before a baby’s immune system can generate its own protection.
In certain situations, antibodies obtained from animals, from other people, or synthesized in a laboratory can be used to treat individuals at risk of infections. For example, infants born to women infected with hepatitis B are treated with antibody preparations in addition to being vaccinated in an effort to protect them from also becoming infected with hepatitis B. In another example, people bitten by some poisonous snakes may be treated with antivenom, a mixture of antibodies against the type of snake venom to which the person was exposed.
Community immunity occurs when people are protected by those around them. This type of protection is indirect in that it does not involve physical components of immunity, such as antibodies, but rather results when a pathogen is less likely to infect a susceptible person because of the high numbers of protected people around them. Because this immunity is not based on “products” of the immune system, it is the least reliable. However, for some in our communities, such as those too young to be immunized or those with weakened immunity due to illness or treatment, community immunity is the only way they can be protected.
We generally talk about community immunity from two perspectives — that of the community, commonly referred to as herd immunity, and that of the individual, commonly known as cocooning:
When enough people in a community have been exposed to a pathogen, it cannot spread as easily. As more people become immune, the pathogen has a smaller pool of people to infect. The result is that the community overall will have fewer outbreaks. Because not all pathogens spread with the same efficiency, the community levels of immunity necessary to benefit from herd immunity vary. For example, because measles is one of the most contagious pathogens known, a community requires almost everyone to be immune in order to stop its transmission. Or said another way, it is much more difficult for an individual to benefit from herd immunity to measles than from most other infectious agents. Vaccines have made it easier for society to reap the benefits of this type of protection. Before vaccines, diseases continued to have susceptible pools of individuals — most often infants and young children not previously exposed to the disease. This is why childhood diseases and deaths were so common.
This type of passive immunity is similar to herd immunity, but is more often aimed at protecting a particular individual rather than a community. Ensuring that everyone around a young infant is immune to a disease like pertussis (whooping cough) is an example of this type of indirect immunity. Another example is ensuring that everyone who visits or cares for a person being treated for cancer is healthy, so that the cancer patient whose immunity is weakened by treatment is less likely to be exposed to a pathogen.
Materials in this section are updated as new information and vaccines become available. The Vaccine Education Center staff regularly reviews materials for accuracy.
You should not consider the information in this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family's personal health. You should not use it to replace any relationship with a physician or other qualified healthcare professional. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult your physician or, in serious cases, seek immediate assistance from emergency personnel.