A Look at Each Vaccine

Vaccines have dramatically transformed the landscape of medicine over the course of the 20th century. Before vaccines, parents in the United States could expect that every year:

  • Polio would paralyze 10,000 children.
  • Rubella (German measles) would cause birth defects and mental retardation in as many as 20,000 newborns.
  • Measles would infect about 4 million children, killing about 500.
  • Diphtheria would be one of the most common causes of death in school-aged children.
  • A bacterium called Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) would cause meningitis in 15,000 children, leaving many with permanent brain damage.
  • Pertussis (whooping cough) would kill 8,000 infants.

Vaccines have reduced and, in some cases, eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled people just a few generations before. For most Americans today, vaccines are a routine part of healthcare.

However, the disappearance of many childhood diseases has led some parents to question whether vaccines are still necessary. Further, a growing number of parents are concerned that vaccines may actually cause other diseases. Although unfounded, these concerns have caused some parents to delay vaccines or withhold them altogether from their children.

Anthrax Vaccine

Cholera Vaccine

COVID-19 Vaccine

Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis Vaccines

Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) Vaccine

Hepatitis A Vaccine

Hepatitis B Vaccine

Human Papillomavirus

Influenza Vaccine

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) Vaccine

Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccines

Meningococcal Vaccine

Pneumococcal Vaccine

Polio Vaccine

Rabies Vaccine

Rotavirus Vaccine

Shingles Vaccine

Smallpox Vaccine

Tuberculosis Vaccine

Typhoid Vaccine

Varicella Vaccine

Yellow fever vaccine

Reviewed by Paul A. Offit, MD on July 18, 2022

Materials in this section are updated as new information and vaccines become available. The Vaccine Education Center staff regularly reviews materials for accuracy.

You should not consider the information in this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family's personal health. You should not use it to replace any relationship with a physician or other qualified healthcare professional. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult your physician or, in serious cases, seek immediate assistance from emergency personnel.