Vaccine Science

Vaccines and the immune system

How do vaccines work? Is natural infection better than immunization? Find the answers to these and other questions you might have about immunity as it relates to vaccines.

Evaluating scientific information and studies

Sometimes, it’s difficult to sort out whether information is scientifically accurate or not. Here are some tips that might help.

Reviewed by Paul A. Offit, MD on April 22, 2020

Materials in this section are updated as new information and vaccines become available. The Vaccine Education Center staff regularly reviews materials for accuracy.

You should not consider the information in this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family's personal health. You should not use it to replace any relationship with a physician or other qualified healthcare professional. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult your physician or, in serious cases, seek immediate assistance from emergency personnel.