CHOP Open-access Medical Education: Pediatric Pulmonology Course Presentations

This seminar focuses on Pediatric Pulmonology and was delivered in Salzburg, Austria, from Oct. 30 – Nov. 4, 2016. The lectures are prepared by Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia staff in weeklong modules that are prepared in affiliation with the American Austrian Foundation Open Medical Institute. The lectures of this seminar are presented in the order of the live event.

Respiratory Physiology for the Clinician

At the conclusion of this session, participants should be able to define compliance, elastance, resistance and conductance, understand determinants of lung volume in children/adults in health and disease, and understand the physiology of forced expiration and the functions of the respiratory muscles.

Presenter: Julian Allen, MD

Respiratory Muscles: the Micro

At the conclusion of this session, participants should be able to describe the cellular mechanisms of respiratory skeletal muscles, and understand the how these cellular mechanisms change during disease, using COPD as an example.

Cystic Fibrosis: Pulmonary Aspects

At the conclusion of this session, participants should be able to describe the genetics of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and the pathophysiology of CF lung disease, know the use of routine chronic therapies based on the pathophysiology of CF lung disease, and know the predictors of declining lung function and mortality in CF.

Lung Disease Across the Lifespan

At the conclusion of this session participants should be able to understand the differences between “new” and “old” bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), appreciate how comorbidities impact BPD severity, anticipate respiratory symptoms in older children with BPD, and understand the impact of BPD on lung function across the lifespan.

Invasive Mechanical Ventilation for Chronic Lung Disease of Prematurity

At the conclusion of this session participants should be able to understand the principles of invasive mechanical ventilation for infants with chronic lung disease/ bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), interpret basic ventilator graphical output, assess patient-ventilator synchrony, and asses respiratory mechanisms in children with established BPD and apply the information to develop appropriate mechanical ventilation strategies.

Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

At the conclusion of this session participants should be able to understand the sequelae of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children, know the available treatment options available for children with OSA, and understand pediatric patient groups at increased risk for OSA.

Preschool Spirometry and Other Preschool PFTs

At the conclusion of this session participants should be able to understand that not all low flow is due to airway obstruction, understand how to distinguish central from peripheral airflow obstruction on spirometry and forced oscillation testing, and understand principles of gas washout/mixing techniques.

Presenter: Julian Allen, MD

Cystic Fibrosis: Non-pulmonary Aspects

At the conclusion of this session participants should be able to understand that cystic fibrosis (CF) in a multi-system disease, appreciate that non-pulmonary manifestations of CF impact morbidity, mortality and quality of life, and appreciate that excellent CF care requires a multidisciplinary team.

Ventilation/Perfusion Mismatch

At the conclusion of this session participants should be able to name the five causes of hypoxemia and the two causes of hypercarbia, understand why some respiratory system disorders cause hypoxemia only and others cause hypoxemia and hypercarbia, and understand clinical applications of the alveolar gas equation and the shunt equation.

Presenter: Julian Allen, MD

Pediatric Asthma

At the conclusion of this session participants should be able to understand the differential diagnosis, pathophysiology and epidemiology of asthma in children; explain the role of airway remodeling in determining lung function in adulthood; be able to perform asthma assessment in children; be able to decide on appropriate therapy in children; and understand controversies about whether asthma therapy can alter its natural history.

Presenter: Julian Allen, MD

Chronic Pulmonary Aspiration in Children

At the conclusion of this session participants should be able to understand the mechanisms of chronic pulmonary aspiration in children, understand the rationale and limitations of diagnostic testing for chronic pulmonary aspiration, and discuss the approach to diagnosis and management of children with recurrent aspiration.

Polysomnography

At the conclusion of this session participants should be able to understand what a polysomnogram is and the information recorded during a sleep study, understand the role of polysomnography in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and understand the differences between and the benefits of in-lab polysomnography compared to home sleep studies.

Clinical Trials

At the conclusion of this session participants should be able to identify various study designs used in clinical research, know the multiple phases of clinical trials, and identify important aspects in designing clinical studies e.g. randomization and blinding.

Home Non-invasive Ventilation

At the conclusion of this session participants should be able to understand the different methods of positive airway pressure (PAP) and which parameters can be adjusted, know common indications and contraindications for home CPAP and BPAP, understand the concepts of titrating PAP, realize challenges involved with treating children with PAP, and be aware of PAP alternatives.

Infant Apnea

At the conclusion of this session participants should be able to understand the different types of apnea that can affect infants, know risk factors for infant apnea, and be aware of options for the management of infant apnea.

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