William C. Gaetz, PhD

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William C. Gaetz, PhD, is a Research Scientist in the Department of Radiology at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

Appointments and Referrals: 1-800-TRY-CHOP (1-800-879-2467)

Education and Training


Post-Doctoral Research Fellow - Neuromagnetic Imaging Laboratory, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada

Undergraduate Degree

BA in Psychology - Honors Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia

Graduate Degree

PhD in Experimental Psychology - McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario

Titles and Academic Titles

Research Associate, Department of Radiology

Research Associate Professor of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

Departments and Services

Research Interests

Cortical oscillations and age-dependent change
Multimodal correlations of motor function with structural (MRI) and molecular (MRS GABA) correlates




Blohm G, Alikhanian H, Gaetz W, Goltz HC, DeSouza JFX, Cheyne DO, Crawford JD (2019).  Neuromagnetic signatures of the spatiotemporal transformation for reaching. Neuroimage. 2019 May 1;197:306-319. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.04.074. [Epub ahead of print]

Edgar JC, Dipiero M, McBride E, Green HL, Berman J, Gaetz W, et al. Abnormal maturation of the resting‐state peak alpha frequency in children  with autism spectrum disorder. Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Apr 11. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24598. [Epub ahead of print]

Chen YH, Saby J, Kuschner E, Gaetz W, Edgar JC, Roberts TPL (2019 Jan 24). Magnetoencephalography and the Infant Brain. Neuroimage, 189: 445-458. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.01.059. PMID: 30685329.


Rhodes E, Gaetz W, Marsden J Hall S. (2018). Transient alpha and beta synchrony underlies  preparatory recruitment of directional motor networks. Journal of Cognitive  Neuroscience. Vol 30 (6), 867-875.

Ishii R, Pascual-Marqui RD, Canuet L, Xiang J, Gaetz W (2018). New insights on Basic and  Clinical Aspects of EEG and MEG connectome Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12,  232.

Gaetz W, Kilaru Kessler S, Roberts, TPL, Berman J, Levy T, Hsia M,  Humpl D, Schwartz ES,  Amaral S, Chang B, Levin S. (2018). Massive cortical reorganization is reversible  following bilateral transplants of the hands: Evidence from the first bilateral  pediatric hand  transplant patient. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology,  5(1), 92-97.


Gaetz W, Jurkiewicz M, Kessler S., Blaskey L, Schwartz E, Roberts TP (2017). Neuromagnetic responses to tactile stimulation of the fingers: Evidence for reduced cortical inhibition for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with epilepsy. NeuroImage: Clinical, 16, 624-633.

Amaral S, Kessler SK, Levy T, Gaetz W, McAndrew C, Chang B, Lopez S, Braham E, Humpl D, Hsia M, Ferry K, Xu X, Elder D, Lefkowitz D, Feudtner C, Thibaudeau S, Lin I, Kovach S, Schwartz E, Bozentka D, Carrigan R, Steinberg D, Kanchwala S, Zlotolow D, Kozin S, Jensen FE, Bryant F, Shaked A, Levine M, and Levin LS (2017). 18 Month Outcomes of Heterologous Bilateral Hand Transplantation in a Child: A Case Report. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 1 (1), 35-44.

Waldman, AT, Liu, G.T., Lavery, AM, Liu G, Gaetz W, Aleman TS, Banwell BL. (2017). Optical coherence tomography and visual evoked potentials in pediatric multiple sclerosis.  Neurology: Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation 4 (4), e356.

Port R, Gaetz W, Bloy L, Wang DJ, Blaskey L, Kuschner E, Levy S, Brodkin ES, Roberts TPL (2017). Exploring the relationship between cortical GABA concentrations, auditory gamma-band responses and development in ASD: Evidence for an altered maturational trajectory in ASD. Autism Research, Apr;10(4):593-607.


Port R, Gaetz W, Bloy L, Wang DJ, Blaskey L, Kuschner E, Levy S, Brodkin ES, Roberts TPL (2016). Exploring the relationship between cortical GABA concentrations, auditory gamma-band responses and development in ASD: Evidence for an altered maturational trajectory in ASD. Autism Res. 2017 Apr;10(4):593-607. doi: 10.1002/aur.1686. Epub 2016 Oct 1.


Gaetz W, Gordon RS, Papadelis C, Fujiwara H, Rose DF, Edgar JC, Schwartz ES,  Roberts TPL Magnetoencephalography for clinical pediatrics: Recent advances in hardware, methods and clinical applications. Journal of Pediatric Epilepsy, 2015 4(4): DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1563726.


Roberts TPL, Paulson D,  Hirschkoff G, Pratt K, Mascarenas A, Miller P, Han M, Caffrey J, Kincade C, Power W, Murray R, Chow V, Fisk C, Ku M, Chudnovskaya D, Dell J, Golembski R, Lam P, Blaskey L, Kuschner E, Bloy L, Gaetz W,  and Edgar JC. (2014). Artemis 123: Development of a whole-head infant MEG system.  Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, March, 2014.

Berman J, Gaetz W, and Roberts T.P.L.  Advanced Diffusion and Spectroscopic MR Applied to Autism (2014).  MAGNETOM Flash.  Issue 2/2014.

Gaetz W., Bloy L., Wang DJ, Port RG, Blaskey LM, Levy SE, Roberts TPL (2014). GABA  estimation in the Brains of Children on the Autism Spectrum: Measurement  precision and regional cortical variation. Neuroimage. 2014 Feb 1;86:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.05.068. Epub 2013 May 24.

Scantlebury N, Gaetz W, Widjaja E, Rutka J, Bouffet E, Rockel C, Mabbott D. (2014). Functional reorganization of the corticospinal tract in a pediatric patient with an arteriovenous malformation. NeuroReport. 2014 Jan 8;25(1):55-9.

Scantlebury N, Cunningham T, Dockstader C, Laughlin S, Gaetz W, Rockel C, Dickson J. Mabbott D. (2014). Relations between white matter maturation and reaction time in  childhood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2014 Jan;20(1):99- 112.


Gaetz W, Scantlebury N, Widjaja E, Rutka J, Bouffet E, Rockel C, Dockstader C, Mabbott D. Mapping of the cortical spinal tracts using magnetoencephalography and diffusion tensor tractography in pediatric brain tumor patients. Childs Nerv Syst. 2010 Nov;26(11):1639-45. Epub 2010 Jun 8.

Gaetz W, Macdonald M, Cheyne D, Snead OC. Neuromagnetic imaging of movement-related cortical oscillations in children and adults: age predicts post-movement beta rebound. Neuroimage. 2010 Jun;51(2):792-807. Epub 2010 Jan 29.


Schwartz ES, Edgar JC, Gaetz WC, Roberts TP. Magnetoencephalography. Pediatr Radiol. 2010 Jan;40(1):50-8. Epub 2009 Nov 24.

Pang EW, Gaetz W, Drake JM, Strantzas S, MacDonald MJ, Otsubo H, Snead OC. Patient with postcentral gyrectomy demonstrates reliable localization of hand motor area using magnetoencephalography. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2009;45(4):311-6. Epub 2009 Aug 28.

Dockstader C, Gaetz W, Cheyne D, Tannock R. Abnormal neural reactivity to unpredictable sensory events in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Aug 15;66(4):376-83. Epub 2009 May 31.

Gaetz W, Cheyne D, Rutka JT, Drake J, Benifla M, Strantzas S, Widjaja E, Holowka S, Tovar-Spinoza Z, Otsubo H, Pang EW. Presurgical localization of primary motor cortex in pediatric patients with brain lesions by the use of spatially filtered magnetoencephalography. Neurosurgery. 2009 Mar;64(3 Suppl):177-85; discussion 186.


Gaetz W, Otsubo H, Pang EW. Magnetoencephalography for clinical pediatrics: the effect of head positioning on measurement of somatosensory-evoked fields. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008 Aug;119(8):1923-33. Epub 2008 Jun 24.

Cheyne D, Bells S, Ferrari P, Gaetz W, Bostan AC. Self-paced movements induce high-frequency gamma oscillations in primary motor cortex. Neuroimage. 2008 Aug 1;42(1):332-42. Epub 2008 Apr 23.

Pang EW, Drake JM, Otsubo H, Martineau A, Strantzas S, Cheyne D, Gaetz W. Intraoperative confirmation of hand motor area identified preoperatively by magnetoencephalography. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2008;44(4):313-7. Epub 2008 May 27.

Mohamed IS, Cheyne D, Gaetz WC, Otsubo H, Logan WJ, Carter Snead O 3rd, Pang EW. Spatiotemporal patterns of oscillatory brain activity during auditory word recognition in children: a synthetic aperture magnetometry study. Int J Psychophysiol. 2008 May;68(2):141-8. Epub 2008 Feb 8.

Dockstader C, Gaetz W, Cheyne D, Wang F, Castellanos FX, Tannock R. MEG event-related desynchronization and synchronization deficits during basic somatosensory processing in individuals with ADHD. Behav Brain Funct. 2008 Feb 12;4:8.


Sutcliffe TL, Gaetz WC, Logan WJ, Cheyne DO, Fehlings DL. Cortical reorganization after modified constraint-induced movement therapy in pediatric hemiplegic cerebral palsy. J Child Neurol. 2007 Nov;22(11):1281-7.

Cheyne D, Bostan AC, Gaetz W, Pang EW. Event-related beamforming: a robust method for presurgical functional mapping using MEG. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007 Aug;118(8):1691-704. Epub 2007 Jun 22.

Herdman AT, Pang EW, Ressel V, Gaetz W, Cheyne D. Task-related modulation of early cortical responses during language production: an event-related synthetic aperture magnetometry study. Cereb Cortex. 2007 Nov;17(11):2536-43. Epub 2007 Jan 4.




Liu C, Gaetz W, and Zhu H (2010). The Stockwell Transform in Studying the Dynamics of  Brain Functions. In: Schulze BW, Wong MW, editors.  Pseudo-differential Operators: Complex Analysis and Partial  Differential Equations - Operator Theory: Advances and Applications, 2010,  Volume 205, 277-291.

Gaetz W, Edgar JC, Wang D-J, Roberts TPL (2010).  Relating motor cortical oscillations to motor  γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), Advances in Biomagnetism. S. Supek and A. Sušac (Eds.):  BIOMAG2010, IFMBE Proceedings 28, pp. 223–226.


Gaetz W, Boor R, Pang EW, Taylor MJ (1998).  EEG Dipole Comparison of Median Nerve N20 and High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs).  In I. Hashimoto and R. Kakigi (Eds.) Recent Advances in Human Neurophysiology, International Congress Series; Vol. 1162, pp. 20-26, Elsevier Science.

Cheyne D, Roberts LE, Gaetz W, Bosnyak D, Nahmias C, Christoforou N, Weinberg H (1998).  Somatotopic organization of human somatosensory cortex: A comparison of EEG, MEG and fMRI methods.  In: Koga Y, Nagata K, Hirata K, editors. Brain Topography Today. Elsevier Science. p. 76-81.


Cheyne D, Roberts LE, Gaetz W, Bosnyak, D, Weinberg, H, Johnson B, Nahmias C, Deecke L (1996).  EEG and MEG source analysis of somatosensory evoked responses to mechanical stimulation of the fingers.  In C. Aine, Y Okada, G. Stroink et al. (Eds.) Biomag 96: Advances in Biomagnetism Research. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Posters and Presentations


Gaetz W. June 4, 2018. Jurkeiwicz, MJ, Gaetz W, Schwartz E (2018). ASNR 56th Annual Meeting, in Vancouver, BC, Canada. Abstract #: O-89 T2 Hypointensity Can Reliably Identify the Primary Motor and Somatosensory Cortices in Children.


Jurkiewicz MJ, Kessler S, Blaskey L, Schwartz ES, Roberts TPL, Gaetz W. Neuromagnetic responses to tactile stimulation of the fingers: Evidence for reduced post-synaptic GABAergic inhibition in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Epilepsy. Presented at the 20th International Conference on Biomagnetism (BIOMAG 2016); Oct 1-6th, Seoul Korea. 

Invited Lectures


Gaetz W. Feb 7th, 2019. Invited Lecture (ACMEGS Annual Meeting). Basics of Conventional Beamformers: Obstacles, Opportunities and Pitfalls. Feb 7th, 2019, Cesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada.


Gaetz W. April 20th, 2018. Invited Lecture (50 Years of MEG. ISACM/EMEGS endorsed "state of the art" review/consensus meeting). Localization of Motor Function with MEG: Early approaches to current state-of-the-art. Poros Greece, April 20th -21st, 2018.


Gaetz W. Oct 26th, 2017. Invited Lecture (13th Congress of the International Society of Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation). Massive cortical reorganization is reversible following bilateral transplants of the hands.  Oct 26th and 27th, 2017, Salzburg Austria.

Gaetz W. Sept 21st, 2017. Invited Lecture (4TH International Symposium on MRS of GABA); Session 2 Pediatric and Neurodevelopment. Chair: N. Puts. Motor GABA Levels Predict Clinical Impairment in Children with Friedreich Ataxia. Leuven, Belgium, September 2017.

Gaetz W. May 22th, 2017. Invited Lecture (ISACM Sendai, Japan).  Cortical reorganization in a pediatric patient following bilateral hand transplantation. Presented at Symposium 7: New clinical application of sensorimotor MEG responses (W. Gaetz and DeTiege Chairs); ISACM: The International Society for the Advancement of Clinical Magnetoencephalography Meeting, Sendai, Japan.

Gaetz W. May 12th, 2017. Invited Lecture (The International Meeting for Autism Research -IMFAR). Neuromagnetic responses to tactile stimulation of the fingers: Evidence for reduced cortical inhibition for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with epilepsy. San Francisco, USA.

Gaetz W. Feb 24th, 2017. Invited Lecture (Pediatric Hand Transplantation Study Group). MEG Measured Cortical Plasticity following bilateral hand transplants.  Philadelphia PA, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

Gaetz W. Feb 14th, 2017. Invited Lecture (Aston Beamformer Workshop). Reorganization of the somatosensory cortex following bilateral transplants of the hands. February 14th and 15th, 2017. Aston University, Aston Brain Centre, School of Psychology Seminar Series, Aston University, Birmingham UK.


Gaetz W. Invited Seminar (Plymouth Psychology Seminar Series): Reorganization of the somatosensory cortex following bilateral transplants of the hands. School of Psychology (Prof. Stephen Hall), University of Plymouth, Devon, U.K. Oct 27th, 2016.

Gaetz W. Invited Lecture (International Conference on Biomagnetism (BIOMAG 2016). Sensorimotor reorganization in a child with bilateral hand transplants.  Presented at “Sensorimotor Responses in MEG: Developmental Trends and Advanced Clinical Applications” (Gaetz W. Chair). Presented at the 20th Oct 1-6th, Seoul Korea. Oct 6th, 2016.

Gaetz W. Invited Lecture (American Society of Pediatric Functional NeuroImaging, ASPNR). Functional Mapping with Magnetoencephalography. Session on Pediatric Functional Neuroimaging, Moderator Gaetz W., Austin Texas. Feb 28th, 2016.


Gaetz W. Invited Lecture (3RD International Symposium on MRS of GABA). Spectroscopy and Genetics: Exploring Motor GABA Levels in Children with 16p.11.2 Mutation. Oct 14th, 2015.

Gaetz W. Invited Lecture (International Society for the Advancement of Clinical Magnetoencephalography). Motor cortical oscillations and autism spectrum disorder (ASD): Implications for the “broken mirror” hypothesis of autism. June 26th, 2015.

Gaetz W. Invited Seminar (The Center for Autism Research (CAR) Neuroimaging lecture series): Motor cortical oscillations and development: Implications for the “Broken Mirror” hypothesis in ASD. The Center for Autism Research (CAR), Philadelphia PA. June 8th, 2015.

Gaetz W. Invited Lecture (INSAR, International Society of Autism Research) Salt Lake City, Utah). Post-Movement Beta Rebound Is Decreased in Children with ASD. Session: C Relationships between Behavior and Sensorimotor Circuitry in ASD Chair: Robert Schultz, Salt Lake City. May 14th, 2015.

Gaetz W. Invited Lecture (ACMEGs, Houston Texas). Pediatric MEG: The Effect of Head Positioning on the Somatosensory Evoked Fields. Session: Current Issues and Controversies in Pediatric MEG Chair: Gretchen Von Allmen, Houston. Feb 5th, 2015.

Awards and Honors

2014, RSNA Certificate of Merit; Is Magnetoencephalography for Radiologists? Yes! Radiological Society of North America, Annual Meeting

1996-1998, NSERC PGSB Scholarship, McMaster University

1995-1996, 1998-1999, Ontario Graduate Scholarship, McMaster University

1994-1995, Departmental Scholarship, McMaster University

1993-1994, Open Undergraduate Scholar, Simon Fraser University

1990-1991, M.H. Morfey Scholarship, Douglas College

Editorial and Academic Positions

Editorial Positions

Manuscript Reviewer

Archives of General Psychiatry
Brain Topography, Cerebral Cortex
Clinical Neurophysiology
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Human Brain Mapping
Journal of Neural Engineering
The Journal of Neuroscience
Clinical NeuroImage
Molecular Psychiatry
Neuroscience Letters
Physics in Medicine and Biology
Physiological Measurement
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Leadership and Memberships

Memberships in Professional Organizations


2007-present, International Society for the Advancement of Clinical Magnetoencephalography (ISACM)
 - 2013-present, Executive Committee Member (Secretary)


1998-present, Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM)
1997-present, Society for Neuroscience