There are two types of lenses prescribed for correcting or improving vision. These include:
Eyeglasses (also called spectacles). Eyeglasses, the most common form of eyewear used to correct or improve many types of vision problems, are a frame that holds two pieces of glass or plastic, which have been ground into lenses to correct refractive errors. Refractive errors can include nearsightedness or myopia (difficulty seeing far away), farsightedness or hyperopia (difficulty seeing close up), and astigmatism (blurring due to an irregularly shaped cornea). Eyeglasses perform this function by adding or subtracting focusing power to the eye's cornea and lens.
Contact lenses. Contact lenses are worn directly on the cornea of the eye. Like eyeglasses, contact lenses help to correct refractive errors and perform this function by adding or subtracting focusing power to the eye's cornea and lens.
The lens power of eyeglasses is measured in diopters. This measurement reflects the amount of power necessary to focus images directly onto the retina. When looking at an eyeglass prescription, you will see the following abbreviations:
O.D. Oculus dextrous simply refers to the right eye (sometimes the abbreviation RE is used).
O.S. Oculus sinister refers to the left eye (sometimes the abbreviation LE is used).
In addition, the eyeglass prescription may also contain the following measurements:
Sphere. This number measurement reflects the extent of the nearsightedness or farsightedness.
Cylinder. This number measurement refers to the amount of astigmatism (an irregularly shaped cornea which causes blurring) in the eye.
Axis. This number measurement describes the direction of the astigmatism in degrees.
Bifocal is additional power in the lens and has an additional measurement listed on the prescription as "add" to indicate the strength of the lens.
The type of lenses used in eyeglasses depends on the type of vision problem, and may include:
Concave lenses are thinnest in the center. Used to correct nearsightedness (myopia), the numerical prescription in diopters is always marked with a minus (-) symbol.
Convex lenses are thickest in the center, like a magnifying glass. Used to correct farsightedness (hyperopia), the numerical prescription in diopters is always marked with a plus (+) symbol.
Cylindrical lenses curve more in one direction than in the other and are often used to correct astigmatism.
Photograph used by permission of the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health
If old enough, let your child play an active role in choosing his or her own glasses. The following are features to consider when buying eyeglasses for children:
Shatterproof and impact resistant lenses, especially for children who participate in sport activities
Scratch-resistant coating on the lenses
Spring-loaded frames that are less likely to be bent or warped
Silicone nose pads that prevent glasses from slipping
Cable temples (ear pieces that wrap around the ear) are recommended in children under four years. Straps may also be recommended to hold the glasses in place.
About 24 million Americans wear contact lenses, 80 percent of whom wear daily wear soft lenses. In general, there are two types of contact lenses in use, including the following:
The rigid, gas-permeable lens
The soft, water-absorbing lens
The prescription for contact lenses includes more information than what is available on the prescription for eyeglasses. Special measurements are taken of the curvature of the eye. In addition, your child's doctor will determine if the eyes are too dry for contact lenses, and if there are any corneal problems that may prevent a person from wearing contact lenses. Trial lenses are usually tested on the eyes for a period of time to ensure proper fit.
Eye care specialists are required by federal law to give you a copy of your contact lens specifications.
Although parents go through great lengths to protect their children's skin from the harmful rays of the sun, many forget that the eyes need to be protected, too. Nearly half of American parents do not regularly provide their children with sunglasses that protect their eyes from the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays. Exposure to sun may set children up for potential vision problems later in life.
The sun can cause sunburned corneas, cancer of the eyelid, cataracts, and macular degeneration, among other problems. In addition, children are more susceptible because their lenses do not block as much UV as adult lenses. Children also tend to spend more time outdoors than their parents, often in places where there is a lot of sun reflection, such as beaches, pools, and amusement parks. Most UV eye damage is cumulative.
Protecting a child's eyes from the sun is simple: