Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV infection means that the body's immune system may not fight off infections very well. Your child's body may not be able to fight back against illness, even a simple cold. Additional care is needed for a child with HIV in order to help him or her remain healthy.
One of the best ways to keep your child healthy is to use proper hand-washing techniques. Clean hands help keep your child from catching colds and from developing other illnesses. Teach your child to wash his or her hands thoroughly at an early age.
Keeping healthy habits is the best way a child can prevent illness. Other ways you can help your child stay healthy include the following:
Nutrition. Make sure your child eats the right foods. This will give your child the energy needed to stay healthy:
Give your child three balanced meals a day and healthy snacks. If you have questions about choosing healthy foods for your child, ask your child's doctor or a dietitian.
A dietitian can also help if your child has special feeding or eating problems, such as mouth sores, that make eating painful.
Skin care. When your child has a cut or sore, the skin is open to germs and can become infected. Taking good care of your child's skin helps prevent infections and may help to keep your child healthy. Consider the following when caring for your child's skin:
Prevent injuries, such as cuts and scrapes. If minor injuries occur, clean them and apply antibiotic ointment. Cover them lightly with a bandage to keep them from getting infected. Wear gloves to prevent contact with your child's blood while tending to the wound.
Keep the skin clean by washing daily with mild soap and water.
Keep dry areas of skin healthy by applying a moisturizing cream daily.
Consult your child's doctor right away if you notice a rash or unusual sore or cut, or if a cut is not healing normally. A diaper rash or white patches in your child's mouth may require additional treatment.
Consult your child's healthcare team if you have any special questions or concerns about your child's skin care.
Make sure to apply sunscreen and insect repellent on your child whenever he or she is playing outside with uncovered skin.
Rest and relaxation. Being tired and stressed can make your child more likely to become sick. Consider the following to make sure your child is getting the appropriate rest and relaxation his or her body needs:
Normal play is important for your child.
Plan rest periods and have a regular bedtime for your child.
Make sure your child gets at least eight or more hours of sleep each night.
If your child seems worried or upset, consult his or her social worker or a chaplain.
If you have special questions about your child's rest and sleep needs, consult his or her healthcare team.
Use caution when allowing your child to have pets, or contact with other people's pets. Children should never be left with animals without supervision. Consult your child's doctor about any pets you have now, and/or before bringing home any new pets.
Medications. Consider the following to ensure your child's medication needs are being met:
Be sure your child takes any medication his or her doctor has ordered exactly as prescribed. Pill reminder boxes can be very useful.
Make sure you understand how much of each medication you should give your child. Do not be afraid to ask questions if this is confusing.
Plan ahead for when you need refills. Do not run out of medications. Forgetting or skipping doses of medication can allow the virus to become resistant to your child's medications.
Consult your child's doctor regarding the recommended routine immunizations for your child, as well as for other family and household members.
If you have questions or problems with your child taking a medication, consult your child's healthcare team.
HIV may be spread from person-to-person when there is contact with infected blood or body fluids (semen and vaginal fluid):
HIV can be spread:
Through sex with a person who carries HIV
By sharing drug needles
To babies born to mothers who carry HIV
To babies breastfed by an HIV-infected mother
To people who receive unscreened blood or blood products that contain HIV
By an uninfected person having an open wound or scratch come into contact with the blood or body fluids or feces of an infected person
HIV cannot be spread by:
You should use universal precautions for any contact with blood, whether your child is known to be HIV-infected or not. These precautions include the following:
Wear latex or vinyl gloves when you need to touch the HIV-infected person's blood and body fluids.
Clean up blood and body fluid spills with a mixture of bleach and water. Mix 1/4 cup of bleach with 2 cups of water.
Wash clothes soiled with blood and body fluids with soapy water. Bleach or nonchlorine bleach may be used to help get stains out. Items that cannot be washed should be put in a plastic bag and thrown away.
Do not share razors or toothbrushes with an HIV-infected person.
If your child has HIV, you can help prevent him or her from spreading HIV by teaching him or her some basic rules, such as how to manage a nosebleed or cut:
Instruct your child to carry a clean handkerchief.
Cover the cut tightly with the handkerchief.
Do not allow anyone to touch the blood with bare hands.
Keeping your child's healthcare appointments is very important. You will also need to know when to bring your child in for care when he or she is getting sick. Your child should see his or her doctor if he or she:
Has a fever greater than 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius) by mouth, or 99 degrees Fahrenheit (37.2 degrees Celsius) under the arm. If you do not know how to take your child's temperature, consult his or her doctor
Has shortness of breath or a cough
Has a change in bowel movements
Has a skin rash including diaper rash, sores on the skin or in the mouth, or white patches in the mouth
Has behavioral changes
Bleeds or bruises for unknown reasons
Has severe pain
Has ear pain or fluid drainage from the ear
Has been in contact with someone who has a contagious illness (especially chickenpox)
Consult your child's doctor for more information.