Mumps is an acute and highly contagious viral illness that usually occurs in childhood. Spread by airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract, the disease usually takes two to three weeks to appear. Cases of mumps in the U.S. have declined dramatically with the introduction of the mumps vaccine.
Many children have no or very mild symptoms. The following are the most common symptoms of mumps. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Discomfort in the salivary glands, especially those in the jaw area, which may become swollen and tender. Some may have difficulty talking and experience an earache.
Difficulty eating and chewing
Loss of appetite
The symptoms of mumps may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
Complications of mumps occur more frequently among adults than children, and may include the following:
Meningitis or encephalitis. Inflammation of the membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord or inflammation of the brain.
Orchitis. Inflammation of the testicle, causing pain and tenderness of the testicles.
Mastitis. Inflammation and tenderness of breast tissue.
Oophoritis. Inflammation of the ovary, which may cause abdominal pain and vomiting.
Pancreatitis. Inflammation of the pancreas.
In addition to a complete medical history and medical examination, your child's doctor may also take a saliva and/or urinary culture to confirm the diagnosis.
Specific treatment for mumps will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of the condition
Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
Treatment is usually limited to pain relievers and plenty of fluids. Sometimes, bed rest is necessary the first few days. According to the CDC, children should stay out of school until symptoms have subsided. Both adults and children with mumps symptoms should minimize contact with other people in their homes. Good basic hygiene, such as thorough hand-washing, covering the mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing, and regularly cleaning frequently touched surfaces, are also important in disease control.
Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a childhood combination vaccination against mumps, measles, and rubella. MMR provides immunity for most people. People who have had mumps are immune for life.
Usually, the first dose of the MMR vaccine is administered when a child is 12 months old, and a second dose is given at 4 to 6 years of age. However, if 28 days have passed since the first dose was administered, a second dose may be given before the age of 4.
Learn more about mumps and the MMR vaccine at CHOP's Vaccine Education Center.