Mark A. Fogel, MD, FACC, FAHA, FAAP

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Mark A. Fogel, MD, FACC, FAHA, FAAP, is an attending cardiologist and radiologist at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, specializing in imaging for heart conditions.

Areas of Expertise: Echocardiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Non-invasive imaging of ventricular function and fluid mechanisms in congenital heart disease
Locations: Main Hospital
Phone: 215-590-4040

Education and Training

Medical School

MD - State University of New York, Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, NY


Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx Municipal Hosp Center, Bronx, NY


Yale New Haven Hospital-Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT


The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA

Board Certification

Pediatric Cardiology

Titles and Academic Titles

Attending Cardiologist

Attending Radiologist

Director of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

Professor of Pediatrics and Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

Departments and Services



  1. Collins RT 2nd, Weinberg PM, Ewing S, Fogel M. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Pulmonary artery sling in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy. Circulation. 2008 May 6;117(18):2403-6. No abstract available. PMID: 18458183
  2. Friedman AH, Fogel MA, Stephens P, Hellinger JC, Nykanen DG, Tweddell J, Feltes TF, Rome JJ. Identification, imaging, functional assessment and management of congenital coronary arterial abnormalities in children. Cardiology In The Young. 2007;17(Suppl 2):56-67.
  3. Cohen MS, Anderson RH, Cohen MI, Atz AM, Fogel M, Gruber PJ, Lopez L, Rome JJ, Weinberg PM. Controversies, genetics, diagnostic assessment, and outcomes relating to the heterotaxy syndrome. Cardiology In The Young. 2007;17(Suppl 2):29-43.
  4. Whitehead K, Pekkan, K, Kitajima H, Paridon, SM, Yoganathan, AP, Fogel MA. Non-Linear Power Loss During Exercise in Single Ventricle Patients After the Fontan: Insights From Computational Fluid Dynamics Circulation 116[suppl I]: I165-I171, 2007.
  5. Soerensen D, Pekkan K, de Zélicourt D, Parks J, Kanter K, Fogel M, Yoganathan AP, Introduction of a New Optimized Total Cavopulmonary Connection. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2007;83(6):2182-2190.
  6. Harris M. Johnson T, Weinberg P, Fogel M. Delayed Enhancement Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Identifies Fibrous Tissue In Children After Congenital Heart Surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;133:676-681.
  7. Ismat, FA, Weinberg PM, Rychik J, Karl TR, Fogel MA. Right Aortic Arch and Coarctation: A Rare Association. Congenital Heart Disease. 2006;1:217-223.
  8. Sundareswaran KS. Kanter KR. Kitajima HD. Krishnankutty R. Sabatier JF. Parks WJ. Sharma S. Yoganathan AP. Fogel M. Impaired Power Output and Cardiac Index with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome - A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2006;82(4):1267-1275; discussion 1275-1277.
  9. Fogel MA. Guest Editor’s Page - Special Edition on Congenital Heart Disease. J Cardiovasc Mag Resonan 2006;8(4):569-571.
  10. Fogel MA. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance of Single Ventricles. J Cardiovasc Mag Resonan. 2006;8(4):661-670.
  11. Kramer C, Neubauer S, Kraitchman D, Higgins C , Fogel MA, Friedrich M, Manning W. Meeting highlights of the 9th annual scientific sessions of the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance: Miami, Florida, January 20-22, 2006. JACC. 2006;48(1):187-192.
  12. de Zélicourt D, Pekkan K, Parks J, Kanter K, Fogel M, Yoganathan AP. Flow Study of an Extra-Cardiac Connection with Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;131:75-791.
  13. Fogel MA, Weinberg PM, Rhodes L. Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of right ventricular dysplasia in children.. 2006;97(8):1232-1237.
  14. Pekkan K, Kitajima HD, de Zelicourt D, Forbess J, Parks J.M, Fogel M, Sharma S, Kanter K, Frakes D, Yoganathan AP. Total Cavopulmonary Connection Flow with Functional Left Pulmonary Artery Stenosis –Angioplasty and Fenestration in Vitro. Circulation. 2005;112:3264-3271.
  15. Johnson TR, Goldmuntz E, McDonald-McGinn DM, Zackai EH, Fogel MA. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Accurate Diagnosis of Aortic Arch Anomalies in Patients with 22q11.2 Deletion. Am J Cardiol. 2005;96:1726-1730.
  16. Menteer J, Weinberg PM, Fogel MA. Quantifying Regional Right Ventricular Function in tetralogy of Fallot. J Cardiovasc Mag Reson. 2005;7:753-761.
  17. Fogel MA, Wilson DR, Flake A, Johnson M, Cohen D, McNeal G, Tian ZY, Rychik J. A New Method Of Functional Assessment Of The Fetal Heart Using A Novel Application Of “Real Time” Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2005;20:475-480.
  18. Zelicourt D., Pekkan K., Wills L., Kanter K., Sharma S., Fogel M., Yoganathan A. P. In Vitro Flow Analysis of a Patient Specific Intra-Atrial TCPC. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79:2094-2102.
  19. Harris MA, Weinberg PM, Whitehead KK, Fogel MA. Usefulness of Branch Pulmonary Artery Regurgitant Fraction to Estimate the Relative Right and Left Pulmonary Vascular Resistances in Congenital Heart Disease. Am J Cardiol 2005;95:1514 –1517.
  20. Pekkan K., Zelicourt D.A., Ge L., Sotiropoulos F., Frakes D.H., Fogel M.A., Yoganathan A.P., Flow Physics Driven CFD Modeling of Complex Anatomical Flows. - A TCPC Case Study. Ann Biomed Eng. 2005;33:284-300.
  21. Fogel MA. Is Routine Cardiac Catheterization Necessary In The Management of Patients With Single Ventricles Across Staged Fontan Reconstruction? No! Pediatric Cardiology. 2005;26:154-158. on-line, Pediatr Cardiol. DOI: 10.1007/s00246-004-0960-6, May 5, 2005.
  22. Fogel MA. Non-Invasive Evaluation Throughout “Routine” Staged Fontan Reconstruction: Evolution, Not Revolution. Pediatric Cardiology Today. 2004;2:6-7.
  23. Frakes DH. Smith MJ. Parks J. Sharma S. Fogel M. Yoganathan AP. New Techniques for the Reconstruction of Complex Vascular Anatomies from MRI Images. J Cardiovasc Mag Reson, 2005;7:425-432.
  24. Haselgrove JC, Fogel MA. Application of spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) to children: The effect of image resolution on tagging pattern. J Cardiovasc Mag Reson. 2005;7:433-440.
  25. Fogel MA, Durning S, Wernovsky G, Pollock AN, Gaynor JW, Nicolson S. Brain versus lung: Hierarchy of feedback loops in single ventricle patients with superior cavopulmonary connection. Circulation. 2004;110[suppl II]:II-147–II-152.
  26. Yang SG, Fogel MA, Stephens P, Bella RD, Weinberg PM. Noninvasive Imaging of Isolated Persistent Fifth Aortic Arch. Pediatr Cardiol 2003;24:179-181.
  27. Frakes DH, Conrad CP, Healy TM, Monaco JW, Fogel M, Sharma S, Smith MJT, Yoganathan AP. Application of an Adaptive Control Grid Interpolation Technique to Morphological Vascular Reconstruction. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2003;50:197-206.
  28. Fogel MA, Weinberg PM. Haselgrove J. Flow volume asymmetry in the right aortic arch in children utilizing magnetic resonance phase encoded velocity mapping. Am Heart J. 2003;145:154-161.
  29. Fleenor JT, Weinberg PM, Kramer SS, Fogel M. Vascular Rings and their Effect on Tracheal Geometry. Pediatric Cardiology. Published on line: DOI: 10.1007/s00246-002-0385-z, in print: 2003;24:430-435.
  30. Fogel MA, Baxter B, Weinberg PM, Hubbard A, Fellows KE. Midterm follow-up of patients with transposition of the great arteries after atrial inversion operation using two- and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 2002;32:440-446.
  31. Frakes D, Sinotte C, Conrad C, Healy T, Fogel M, Monaco J, Smith M, Yoganathan A. Application of an Adaptive Control Grid Interpolation Technique to MR Data Enhancement for Morphological Vascular Reconstruction. Proceedings of the 2002 SPIE Medical Imaging Conference (San Diego, CA, USA, 2002).
  32. Fogel MA. Use of Ejection Fraction (Or Lack Thereof), Morbidity / Mortality and Heart Failure Drug Trials: A Review. International J Cardiol. 2002;84:119-132.
  33. Fogel MA, Weinberg PM. Haselgrove J. Non-Uniform Flow Dynamics in the Aorta of Normal Children: A Simplified Approach to Measurement Using Magnetic Resonance Velocity Mapping Study. J Mag Reson Imaging. 2002;15:672-678.
  34. Fogel MA, Rychik J, Chin A, Hubbard A, Weinberg PM: Evaluation and Follow-up of Patients with Left Ventricular Apical To Aortic Conduits Using Two and Three - Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Doppler Echocardiography: A New Look At An Old Operation. Am Heart J. 2001;141:630-636.
  35. Frakes D, Conrad C, Healy T, Monaco J, Smith M, Fogel M, Sharma S, Yoganathan A.  Application of an Adaptive Control Grid Interpolation Technique to MR Data Set Augmentation Aimed at Morphological Vascular Reconstruction. Proceedings of the 2001 ISMRM Minimum Data Acquisition Workshop (Marco Island, FL, USA, 2001).
  36. Fogel MA, Hubbard A, Weinberg PM. A simplified approach for assessment of intracardiac baffles and extracardiac conduits in congenital heart surgery with two- and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Am Heart J. 2001;142(6):1028-1036.
  37. Fogel MA. Assessment of cardiac function by MRI. Pediatr Cardiol. 2000;21:59-69.
  38. Fogel MA, Weinberg PM, Hubbard A, Haselgrove J. Diastolic biomechanics in normal infants utilizing MRI tissue tagging. Circulation. 2000;102:218-224.
  39. Fogel MA. Biomédica de la interacción ventrículo-ventricular. (Ventricular-ventricular interaction). Salud i Ciencia (a publication of Sociedad Iberoamericana de Informacion Cientifica (SIIC)) 2000;9(6):8-9.
  40. Fogel MA, Weinberg PM, Rychik J, Hubbard A, Jacobs M, Spray TL, Haselgrove J. Caval Contribution to Flow in the Branch Pulmonary Arteries of Fontan Patients Using A Novel Application of Magnetic Resonance Presaturation Pulse. Circulation. 1999;99:1215-1221.
  41. Donofrio MT, Clark BJ, Ramaciotti C, Jacobs ML, Fellows KE, Weinberg PM, Fogel MA. Regional wall motion and strain of transplanted hearts in pediatric patients using magnetic resonance tagging. Am J Physiol - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 1999;277:R1481-R1487.
  42. Fogel MA, Rychik J. Right ventricular function in congenital heart disease: Volume and pressure overload lesions. Prog Cardiovasc Diseases 1998;40(4):343-356.
  43. Weinberg PM, Fogel MA. Cardiac MR imaging in congenital heart disease. Cardiology Clinics 1998;16(2):315-348.
  44. Hubbard AM, Fellows KE, Weinberg PM, Fogel MA. Preoperative and postoperative MRI of congenital heart disease. Seminars in Roentgenology. 1998;33(3):218-227.
  45. Fogel MA, Hubbard AM, Fellows KE, Weinberg PM. MRI for physiology and function in congenital heart disease: Functional assessment of the heart preoperatively and postoperatively Seminars in Roentgenology. 1998;33(3):239-251.
  46. Weinberg PM, Hubbard AM, Fogel MA. Aortic arch and pulmonary artery anomalies in children Seminars in Roentgenology. 1998;33(3):262-280.
  47. Fogel MA, Weinberg PM, Gupta KB, Rychik J, Hubbard A, Hoffman EA, Haselgrove J. Mechanics of the Single Left Ventricle: A Study in Ventricular-Ventricular Interaction II Circulation. 1998;98:330-338.
  48. Rychik J, Tian ZY, Fogel MA, Joshi V, Rose NC, Jacobs ML. The single ventricle heart in the fetus: Accuracy of prenatal diagnosis and outcome. J Perinatol. 1997;17:183-188.
  49. Shah MJ, Rychik J, Fogel MA, Murphy JD, Jacobs ML. Pulmonary AV malformations after superior cavo-pulmonary connection: Resolution after inclusion of hepatic veins in the pulmonary circulation. Annals Thorac Surg 1997;63:960-963.
  50. Fogel MA, Rychik J, Vetter J, Donofrio MT, Jacobs M. Effect of volume unloading surgery on coronary flow dynamics in patients with aortic atresia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997;113:718-727.
  51. Fogel MA, Weinberg PM, Hoydu A, Hubbard A, Rychik J, Jacobs M, Haselgrove J. Effect of surgical reconstruction on flow profiles in the aorta using magnetic resonance blood tagging. Annals Thorac Surg 1997;63:1691-1700.
  52. Zachary CH, Apostolopoulou SC, Jacobs ML, Fogel MA. The one lung Fontan - Hemodynamics and surgical outcome. Annals Thorac Surg. 1998;65(1):171-175.
  53. Rychik J, Fogel MA, Donofrio MT, Goldmutz E, Cohen MS, Spray TL, Jacobs ML. Comparison of patterns of pulmonary venous blood flow in the functional single ventricle heart after operative aorto-pulmonary shunt versus superior cavo-pulmonary shunt. Am J Cardiol 1997;80:922-926.
  54. Fogel MA, Weinberg PM, Hoydu A, Hubbard A, Rychik J, Jacobs M, Haselgrove J. The nature of flow in the systemic venous pathway in Fontan patients utilizing magnetic resonance blood tagging. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997;114:1032-1041.
  55. Fogel MA, Weinberg PM, Chin AJ, Fellows KE, Hoffman EA. Late ventricular geometry and performance changes of functional single ventricle throughout staged Fontan reconstruction assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996;28(1):212-221.
  56. Bornemeier RA, Weinberg PM, Fogel MA. Angiographic, echocardiographic and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging of extracardiac conduits in congenital heart disease Am J Cardiol. 1996;78(6):713-717.
  57. Fogel MA, Gupta K, Baxter MS, Weinberg PM, Haselgrove J, Hoffman EA. Biomechanics of the deconditioned left ventricle. Am J Physiol. (Heart and Circulatory Physiology) 1996;40(3):H1193-1206.
  58. Fogel MA, Weinberg PM, Fellows KE, Hoffman EA. A Study in ventricular - ventricular interaction: Single right ventricles compared with systemic right ventricles in a dual chambered circulation. Circulation. 1995;92(2):219-230.
  59. Fogel MA, Gupta KB, Weinberg PW, Hoffman EA. Regional wall motion and strain analysis across stages of Fontan reconstruction by magnetic resonance tagging. Am J Physiol. 1995;269(Heart and Circulatory Physiology 38):H1132-H1152.
  60. Fogel MA, Donofrio MT, Baldwin HS, Weinberg PM. Effect of persistent left superior vena cava on hemodynamic calculations. Am J Cardiol. 1995;76(3):204-207.
  61. Fogel MA, Seliem M, Lieb D. Validity of electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy in children with pressure or volume-loaded ventricles: comparison with echocardiographic left ventricular mass. Pediatr Cardiol. 1995;16(6):261-269.
  62. Fellows KE, Fogel MA. MR imaging and heart function in patients pre- and post-Fontan surgery. Acta Paediatrica Supplement. 1995;410:57-59.
  63. Fellows KE, Fogel M, Weinberg PM. Three-dimensional reconstruction of MR images in congenital heart disease. Acta Paediatrica. Supplement. 1995;410:60-62.
  64. Fogel, MA. Evaluation of ventricular geometry and performance in congenital heart disease utilizing magnetic resonance imaging. Proc SPIE (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers) - Medical Imaging,1994: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images. 1994;2168:195-217.
  65. Adams R, Fellows KE, Fogel MA, Weinberg PM. Anatomic delineation of congenital heart disease with 3D magnetic resonance imaging. Proc SPIE (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers) - Medical Imaging,1994: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images. 1994;2168:184-94.
  66. Fogel MA, Ramaciotti C, Hubbard AM, Weinberg PW. Magnetic resonance and echocardiographic imaging of pulmonary artery size throughout stages of Fontan reconstruction. Circulation. 1994;90(6):2927-2936.
  67. Fogel MA, Weinberg PW, Fellows KE, Hoffman EA. Magnetic resonance imaging of constant total heart volume and center of mass in patients with functional single ventricle before and after staged Fontan procedure. Am J Cardiol. 1993;72:1435-1443.
  68. Fogel MA, Chin AJ. Imaging of pulmonary venous pathway obstruction in patients after the modified Fontan procedure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992;20:181-190.
  69. Fogel MA, Copel J, Cullen M, Hobbins J, Kleinman C. Congenital heart disease and fetal throacoabdominal anomalies: Associations in utero and the importance of cyctogenetic analysis. Am J Perinatol. 1991;8(6):411-416.
  70. Wahn V, Poleshuck L, Fogel MA, Good RA, Day N. Zwei solid-phase-ELISAs zur mesung zirkulierender immunokomple in menschilchen sern. Medizinische Laboratorium. 1981;34(12): 331-337. (English title: Two solid phase ELISAs for measuring circulating immune complexes in human sera).

Editorial and Academic Positions

2006 - Associate Editor, Congenital Heart Disease

January, 2005 - present: Associate Editor, Current Cardiology Reviews

January, 2001 - present: Assistant Editor and Pediatric Editor, Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance