Robert J. Levy, MD

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Robert J. Levy, MD, is a board-certified attending cardiologist in the Cardiac Center and the William J. Rashkind Endowed Chair in Pediatric Cardiology at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

Areas of Expertise: Cardiac arrhythmias and post-angioplasty surgery, Research concerning site-specific therapy for cardiovascular disease focusing on valve replacement surgery
Locations: Main Hospital
Phone: 215-590-4040

Education and Training

Medical School

MD - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD

Internship

Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD

Residency

Pediatrics - Children's Hospital, Boston, MA

Fellowship

Cardiology - Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston, MA

Clinical Fellow in Pediatrics - Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

Board Certification

Pediatrics

Titles and Academic Titles

Attending cardiologist

William J. Rashkind Endowed Chair in Pediatric Cardiology

Director, Cardiology Research Laboratories

Professor of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

Departments and Services

Publications

Papers

2020

Inamdar Vaishali V, Fitzpatrick Emmett, Alferiev Ivan, Nagaswami Chandrasekaran, Spruce Lynn A, Fazelinia Hossein, Bratinov George, Seeholzer Steven H, Levy Robert J, Fishbein Ilia, Stachelek Stanley J: Stability and bioactivity of pepCD47 attachment on stainless steel surfaces. Acta Biomaterialia 104: 231-240, Mar 2020.

Kossar Alexander P, Anselmo Wanda, Grau Juan B, Liu Yichuan, Small Aeron, Carter Samuel L, Salvador Lisa, Zhao Lei, Cvijic Mary Ellen, Li Zhuyin, Yarde Melissa, Rioux Nancy, Rader Daniel J, Levy Robert J, Ferrari Giovanni: Circulating and tissue matricellular RNA and protein expression in calcific aortic valve disease. Physiol Genomics. 52(4): 191-199, Apr 2020 Notes: PubMed Central in process.

Battig MR, Alferiev IS, Guerrero DT, Fishbein I, Pressly BB, Levy RJ, Chorny M: Experimental Single-Platform Approach to Enhance Functionalization of Magnetically Targetable Cells. ACS Applied Bio Materials 3(6): 3914-3922, Jun 15 2020.

Frasca A, Xue Y, Kossar AP, Keeney S, Rock C, Zakharchenko A, Streeter M, Gorman RC, Grau JB, George I, Bavaria JE, Krieger A, Spiegel DA, Levy RJ, Ferrari G: Glycation and serum albumin infiltration contribute to the structural degeneration of bioprosthetic heart valves  J Am Coll Cardiol Basic Trans Science 5((8)): 755-766. Aug  2020

Inamdar VV, Fitzpatrick EG, Alferiev IS, Levy RJ, Stachelek SJ, Fishbein I.: Mitigation of Blood Borne Cell Attachment to Metal Implants through CD47-Derived Peptide Immobilization. J Vis Exp. ((166)), Dec 3 2020.

2019

Fortier JH, Pizzarotti B, Shaw RE, Levy RJ, Ferrari G, Grau J. : Drug-associated valvular heart diseases and serotonin-related pathways: a meta-analysis. Heart 105(15): 1140-1148, Aug 2019  Notes: Epub ahead of print. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2018-314403.

2018

Battig Mark R, Fishbein Ilia, Levy Robert J, Alferiev Ivan S, Guerrero David, Chorny Michael: Optimizing endothelial cell functionalization for cell therapy of vascular proliferative disease using a direct contact co-culture system. Drug Deliv Transl Res  8(4): 954-963, Aug 2018 Notes: epub July 2017. Paper publication Aug 2018.

Anselmo W, Branchetti E, Grau JB, Li G, Ayoub S, Rioux N, Tovmasyan A, Sacks MS, Batinic-Haberle I, Levy RJ, Ferrari G: A Porphyrin-based SOD mimic, Mntnbuoe-2-pyp5+ inhibits mechanisms of  aortic valve remodeling in human and murine models of aortic valve sclerosis. J Am Heart Assoc 2018 Notes: submitted April 2018; accepted for publication Aug 2018.

2017

Lee S, Levy RJ, Christian AJ, Hazen SL, Frick NE, Lai EK, Grau JB, Bavaria JE, Ferrari G.: Calcification and Oxidative Modifications Are Associated With Progressive Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Dysfunction. J Am Heart Assoc 6(5): pii: e005648. May 2017.

Fishbein I, Guerrero DT, Alferiev IS, Foster JB, Minutolo NG, Chorny M, Monteys AM, Driesbaugh KH, Nagaswami C, Levy RJ: Stent-based delivery of adeno-associated viral vectors with sustained vascular transduction and iNOS-mediated inhibition of in-stent restenosis. Gene Ther Aug 2017.

Goldberg E, Grau JB, Fortier JH, Salvati E, Levy RJ, Ferrari G.: Serotonin and catecholamines in the development and progression of heart valve diseases. Cardiovasc Res 113(8): 849-857, 2017.

KH Driesbaugh; E Branchetti, JB Grau, SJ Keeney, K Glass, MA Oyama, J Fortier; N Rioux, MS Sacks J Quackenbush, RJ Levy, G Ferrari: Serotonin Receptor 2B Signaling with Interstitial Cell Activation and Leaflet Remodeling in Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation. J Mol Cell Cardiol.  115: 94-103, December 2017

2016

Adamo Richard F, Fishbein Ilia, Zhang Kehan, Wen Justin, Levy Robert J, Alferiev Ivan S, Chorny Michael: Magnetically enhanced cell delivery for accelerating recovery of the endothelium in injured arteries. J Control Release 222: 169-75, Jan 2016.

Slee JB, Alferiev IS, Nagaswami C, Weisel JW, Levy RJ, Fishbein I, Stachelek SJ: Enhanced biocompatibility of CD47-functionalized vascular stents. Biomaterials 87: 82-92, May 2016.

Fishbein I, Welch, Guerrero DT, Alferiev IS, Adamo RF, Chorny M, Gupte RK, Tang Y, Levy RJ: Paraffin Processing of Stented Arteries Using a Post-Fixation Dissolution of Metallic and Polymeric Stents. Cardiovascular Pathology 25(6): 483-488, Aug 2016.

2015

Iyer R, Croucher JL, Chorny M, Mangino JL, Alferiev IS, Levy RJ, Kolla V, Brodeur GM: Nanoparticle delivery of an SN38 conjugate is more effective than irinotecan in a mouse model of neuroblastoma. Cancer Lett 360(2): 205-12, Feb 2015.

Alferiev Ivan S, Iyer Radhika, Croucher Jamie L, Adamo Richard F, Zhang Kehan, Mangino Jennifer L, Kolla Venkatadri, Fishbein Ilia, Brodeur Garrett M, Levy Robert J, Chorny Michael: Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of a rapidly activatable prodrug of SN-38 for neuroblastoma therapy. Biomaterials 51: 22-9, May 2015.

Christian AJ, Alferiev IS, Connolly JM, Ischiropoulos H, Levy RJ.: The effects of the covalent attachment of 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tertbutylphenyl) propyl amine to glutaraldehyde pre-treated bovine pericardium on structural degeneration, oxidative modification and calcification of rat subdermal implants. J Biomed Mater Res A 103(7): 2441-8, Jul 2015

Christian Abigail J, Lin Hongqiao, Alferiev Ivan S, Connolly Jeanne M, Ferrari Giovanni, Hazen Stanley L, Ischiropoulos Harry, Levy Robert J: The susceptibility of bioprosthetic heart valve leaflets to oxidation. Biomaterials 35(7): 2097-102, Feb 2014.

Tengood JE, Alferiev IS, Zhang K, Fishbein I, Levy RJ, Chorny M.: Real-time disassembly analysis of composite magnetic nanoparticles in cells and biomimetic media. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 11(11): 4245-50, Mar 2014 Notes: Pub Med in process.

Hood Elizabeth D, Chorny Michael, Greineder Colin F, S Alferiev Ivan, Levy Robert J, Muzykantov Vladimir R: Endothelial targeting of nanocarriers loaded with antioxidant enzymes for protection against vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. Biomaterials 35(11): 3708-15, Apr 2014.

Slee JB, Christian AJ, Levy RJ, Stachelek SJ.: Addressing the Inflammatory Response to Clinically Relevant Polymers by Manipulating the Host Response Using ITIM Domain-Containing Receptors. Polymers (Basel)  6(10): 2526-51, Sep 2014.

Kruklitis RJ, Fishbein I, Singhal S, Kapoor V, Levy RJ, Sterman DH: Stent-mediated gene delivery for site-specific transgene administration to the airway epithelium and management of tracheobronchial tumors. Respiration 88(5): 406-17, Oct 2014 Notes: [PubMed - in process]

Fishbein Ilia, Forbes Scott P, Adamo Richard F, Chorny Michael, Levy Robert J, Alferiev Ivan S: Vascular gene transfer from metallic stent surfaces using adenoviral vectors tethered through hydrolysable cross-linkers. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE(90), e51653, 2014.

Slee Joshua B, Alferiev Ivan S, Levy Robert J, Stachelek Stanley J: The use of the ex vivo Chandler Loop Apparatus to assess the biocompatibility of modified polymeric blood conduits. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE(90), 2014.

2013

Branchetti Emanuela, Sainger Rachana, Poggio Paolo, Grau Juan B, Patterson-Fortin Jeffrey, Bavaria Joseph E, Chorny Michael, Lai Eric, Gorman Robert C, Levy Robert J, Ferrari Giovanni: Antioxidant enzymes reduce DNA damage and early activation of valvular interstitial cells in aortic valve sclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 33(2): e66-74, Feb 2013.

Chorny Michael, Fishbein Ilia, Tengood Jillian E, Adamo Richard F, Alferiev Ivan S, Levy Robert J: Site-specific gene delivery to stented arteries using magnetically guided zinc oleate-based nanoparticles loaded with adenoviral vectors. FASEB J 27(6): 2198-206, Feb 2013.

Ma G, Wang Y, Fishbein I, Yu M, Zhang L, Alferiev IS, Yang J, Song C, Levy RJ: Anchoring of self-assembled plasmid DNA/ anti-DNA antibody/cationic lipid micelles on bisphosphonate-modified stent for cardiovascular gene delivery. Int J Nanomedicine 8: 1029-1035, March 2013.

Fishbein Ilia, Forbes Scott P, Chorny Michael, Connolly Jeanne M, Adamo Richard F, Corrales Ricardo A, Alferiev Ivan S, Levy Robert J: Adenoviral vector tethering to metal surfaces via hydrolyzable cross-linkers for the modulation of vector release and transduction. Biomaterials 34(28): 6938-48, Sep 2013.

Forbes Scott P, Alferiev Ivan S, Chorny Michael, Adamo Richard F, Levy Robert J, Fishbein Ilia: Modulation of NO and ROS production by AdiNOS transduced vascular cells through supplementation with L-Arg and BH4: implications for gene therapy of restenosis. Atherosclerosis 230(1): 23-32, Sep 2013.

Finley Matthew J, Clark Katherine A, Alferiev Ivan S, Levy Robert J, Stachelek Stanley J: Intracellular signaling mechanisms associated with CD47 modified surfaces. Biomaterials 34(34): 8640-9, Nov 2013.

2012

Chorny M, Alferiev IS, Fishbein I, Tengood JE, Folchman-Wagner Z, Forbes SP, Levy, RJ: Formulation and In Vitro Characterization of Composite Biodegradable Magnetic Nanoparticles for Magnetically Guided Cell Delivery. Pharm Res 29(5): 1232-41, May 2012.

Chen C-Y , Bertozzi C, Zou Z, Yuan L, Lee J, Lu M-M, Stachelek S, Srinivasan S, Guo L, Vicente A, Mericko P, Levy RJ, Makinen T, Oliver G, Kahn M.: Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels through shear-mediated loss of endothelial PROX1.  J Clin Invest 122(6): 2006-17, June 2012.

Finley MJ, Rauova L, Alferiev IS, Weisel JW, Levy RJ, Stachelek SJ. : Diminished adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils with CD47 functionalized blood contacting surfaces. Biomaterials 33(24): 5803-5811, Aug 2012

Stachelek Stanley J, Finley Matthew J, Alferiev Ivan S, Wang Fengxiang, Tsai Richard K, Eckells Edward C, Tomczyk Nancy, Connolly Jeanne M, Discher Dennis E, Eckmann David M, Levy Robert J: The effect of CD47 modified polymer surfaces on inflammatory cell attachment and activation. Biomaterials 32(19): 4317-26, Jul 2011.

Balachandran K, Bakay M, Connolly JM, Zhang MS, Yoganathan AP, Levy RJ: Aortic Valve Cyclic Stretch Causes Increased Remodeling Activity and Enhanced Serotonin Receptor Responsiveness. Ann Thorac Surg 92: 147-53, 2011.

Connolly JM, Bakay MA, Alferiev IS, Gorman RC, Gorman JH, Kruth HS, Ashworth PE, Kutty JK, Schoen FJ, Bianco RW, Levy RJ : Triglycidylamine cross-linking combined with ethanol inhibits bioprosthetic heart valve calcification. Ann  Thorac Surg 92: 858-865, 2011.

2010

Oyama M A, Levy R J: Insights into serotonin signaling mechanisms associated with canine degenerative mitral valve disease. Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine 24(1): 27-36, Jan-Feb 2010.

Chorny M, Fishbein I, Yellen BB, Alferiev IS, Bakay M, Gantas S, Amiji M, Friedman G, Levy RJ.: Targeting stents with local delivery of paclitaxel-loaded magnetic nanoparticles using uniform fields. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(18): 8346-8351, May 2010.

Chorny Michael, Hood Elizabeth, Levy Robert J, Muzykantov Vladimir R: Endothelial delivery of antioxidant enzymes loaded into non-polymeric magnetic nanoparticles. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society 146(1): 144-51, Aug 2010.

Stachelek Stanley J, Alferiev Ivan, Ueda Masako, Eckels Edward C, Gleason Kevin T, Levy Robert J: Prevention of polyurethane oxidative degradation with phenolic antioxidants covalently attached to the hard segments: structure-function relationships. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A 94(3): 751-9, Sep 2010.

Ueda Masako, Alferiev Ivan S, Simons Stacey B, Hebbel Robert P, Levy Robert J, Stachelek Stanley J: CD47-dependent molecular mechanisms of blood outgrowth endothelial cell attachment on cholesterol-modified polyurethane. Biomaterials 31(25): 6394-9, Sep 2010.

Uttayarat Pimpon, Perets Anat, Li Mengyan, Pimton Pimchanok, Stachelek Stanley J, Alferiev Ivan, Composto Russell J, Levy Robert J, Lelkes Peter I: Micropatterning of three-dimensional electrospun polyurethane vascular grafts. Acta biomaterialia 6(11): 4229-37, Nov 2010.

Chorny, M.,  Fishbein, I.,  Yellen, B. B.,  Alferiev, I. S.,  Bakay, M.,  Ganta, S.,  Adamo, R.,  Amiji, M.,  Friedman, G.,  Levy, R. J.: Targeting stents with local delivery of paclitaxel-loaded magnetic nanoparticles using uniform fields. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(18): 8346-51, 2010.

Shawn A. Hunter,  H. Scott Rapoport,  Jeanne M. Connolly,  Ivan Alferiev,  James Fulmer,  Brandon H. Murti,  Mohammadsafa Herfat,  Frank R. Noyes,  David L. Butler,  Robert J. Levy: Biomechanical and biologic effects of meniscus stabilization using triglycidyl amine. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 93A(1): 235-242, 2010.

2009

Arndt, J. W.,  Reynolds, C. A.,  Singletary, G. E.,  Connolly, J. M.,  Levy, R. J.,  Oyama, M. A.: Serum serotonin concentrations in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease. J Vet Intern Med 23(6): 1208-13, 2009.

Chorny, M.,  Fishbein, I.,  Alferiev, I.,  Levy, R. J.: Magnetically responsive biodegradable nanoparticles enhance adenoviral gene transfer in cultured smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Mol Pharm 6(5): 1380-7, 2009.

Chorny, M.,  Levy, R. J.: Site-specific analgesia with sustained release liposomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(17): 6891-2, 2009.

Connolly, J. M.,  Bakay, M. A.,  Fulmer, J. T.,  Gorman, R. C.,  Gorman, J. H., 3rd,  Oyama, M. A.,  Levy, R. J.: Fenfluramine disrupts the mitral valve interstitial cell response to serotonin. Am J Pathol 175(3): 988-97, 2009.

Schoen, F. J.,  Levy, R. J.: SnapShot: calcification of bioprosthetic heart valves. Biomaterials 30(26): 4445-6, 2009.

2008

Polyak Boris, Fishbein Ilia, Chorny Michael, Alferiev Ivan, Williams Darryl, Yellen Ben, Friedman Gary, Levy Robert J: High field gradient targeting of magnetic nanoparticle-loaded endothelial cells to the surfaces of steel stents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(2): 698-703, Jan 2008.

Fishbein Ilia, Alferiev Ivan, Bakay Marina, Stachelek Stanley J, Sobolewski Peter, Lai Meizan, Choi Hoon, Chen I-W, Levy Robert J: Local delivery of gene vectors from bare-metal stents by use of a biodegradable synthetic complex inhibits in-stent restenosis in rat carotid arteries. Circulation 117(16): 2096-103, Apr 2008.

Jin Xu, Mei Lin, Song Cunxian, Liu Lanxia, Leng Xigang, Sun Hongfan, Kong Deling, Levy Robert J: Immobilization of plasmid DNA on an anti-DNA antibody modified coronary stent for intravascular site-specific gene therapy. The journal of gene medicine 10(4): 421-9, Apr 2008.

2007

Rapoport H Scott, Connolly Jeanne M, Fulmer James, Dai Ning, Murti Brandon H, Gorman Robert C, Gorman Joseph H, Alferiev Ivan, Levy Robert J: Mechanisms of the in vivo inhibition of calcification of bioprosthetic porcine aortic valve cusps and aortic wall with triglycidylamine/mercapto bisphosphonate. Biomaterials 28(4): 690-9, Feb 2007.

Clark-Greuel Jocelyn N, Connolly Jeanne M, Sorichillo Elizabeth, Narula Navneet R, Rapoport H Scott, Mohler Emile R, Gorman Joseph H, Gorman Robert C, Levy Robert J: Transforming growth factor-beta1 mechanisms in aortic valve calcification: increased alkaline phosphatase and related events. The Annals of thoracic surgery 83(3): 946-53, Mar 2007.

Chorny Michael, Polyak Boris, Alferiev Ivan S, Walsh Kenneth, Friedman Gary, Levy Robert J: Magnetically driven plasmid DNA delivery with biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 21(10): 2510-9, Aug 2007.

Stachelek Stanley J, Alferiev Ivan, Fulmer James, Ischiropoulos Harry, Levy Robert J: Biological stability of polyurethane modified with covalent attachment of di-tert-butyl-phenol. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A 82(4): 1004-11, Sep 2007.

Sacks Michael S, Hamamoto Hirotsugu, Connolly Jeanne M, Gorman Robert C, Gorman Joseph H, Levy Robert J: In vivo biomechanical assessment of triglycidylamine crosslinked pericardium. Biomaterials 28(35): 5390-8, Dec 2007.

2006

Alferiev Ivan S, Connolly Jeanne M, Stachelek Stanley J, Ottey Allis, Rauova Lubica, Levy Robert J: Surface heparinization of polyurethane via bromoalkylation of hard segment nitrogens. Biomacromolecules 7(1): 317-22, Jan 2006.

Fishbein Ilia, Alferiev Ivan S, Nyanguile Origene, Gaster Richard, Vohs John M, Wong Gordon S, Felderman Howard, Chen I-Wei, Choi Hoon, Wilensky Robert L, Levy Robert J: Bisphosphonate-mediated gene vector delivery from the metal surfaces of stents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(1): 159-64, Jan 2006.

Stachelek Stanley J, Alferiev Ivan, Connolly Jeanne M, Sacks Michael, Hebbel Robert P, Bianco Richard, Levy Robert J: Cholesterol-modified polyurethane valve cusps demonstrate blood outgrowth endothelial cell adhesion post-seeding in vitro and in vivo. The Annals of thoracic surgery 81(1): 47-55, Jan 2006.

Mei Lin, Jin Xu, Song Cunxian, Wang Manyan, Levy R J: Immobilization of gene vectors on polyurethane surfaces using a monoclonal antibody for localized gene delivery. The journal of gene medicine 8(6): 690-8, Jun 2006.

Chorny Michael, Fishbein Ilia, Alferiev Ivan S, Nyanguile Origene, Gaster Richard, Levy Robert J: Adenoviral gene vector tethering to nanoparticle surfaces results in receptor-independent cell entry and increased transgene expression. Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 14(3): 382-91, Sep 2006.

Stachelek Stanley J, Alferiev Ivan, Choi Hoon, Chan Chun Wai, Zubiate Brett, Sacks Michael, Composto Russell, Chen I-Wei, Levy Robert J: Prevention of oxidative degradation of polyurethane by covalent attachment of di-tert-butylphenol residues. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A 78(4): 653-61, Sep 2006.

Sacks Michael S, Enomoto Yoshiharu, Graybill Jeffrey R, Merryman W David, Zeeshan Ahmad, Yoganathan Ajit P, Levy Robert J, Gorman Robert C, Gorman Joseph H: In-vivo dynamic deformation of the mitral valve anterior leaflet. The Annals of thoracic surgery 82(4): 1369-77, Oct 2006.

Song Cun-xian, Zhang Lin-hua, Yang Jin, Stachelek Stanley J, Levy Robert J: [Animal study of intravascular gene therapy based on polyurethane implantable devices] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae 28(5): 682-5, Oct 2006.

2005

Connolly Jeanne M, Alferiev Ivan, Clark-Gruel Jocelyn N, Eidelman Naomi, Sacks Michael, Palmatory Elizabeth, Kronsteiner Allyson, Defelice Suzanne, Xu Jie, Ohri Rachit, Narula Navneet, Vyavahare Narendra, Levy Robert J: Triglycidylamine crosslinking of porcine aortic valve cusps or bovine pericardium results in improved biocompatibility, biomechanics, and calcification resistance: chemical and biological mechanisms. The American journal of pathology 166(1): 1-13, Jan 2005.

Stachelek Stanley J, Alferiev Ivan, Choi Hoon, Kronsteiner Allyson, Uttayarat Pimporn, Gooch Keith J, Composto Russell J, Chen I-Wei, Hebbel Robert P, Levy Robert J: Cholesterol-derivatized polyurethane: characterization and endothelial cell adhesion. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A 72(2): 200-12, Feb 2005.

Clark Jocelyn N, Ogle Matthew F, Ashworth Paul, Bianco Richard W, Levy Robert J: Prevention of calcification of bioprosthetic heart valve cusp and aortic wall with ethanol and aluminum chloride. The Annals of thoracic surgery 79(3): 897-904, Mar 2005.

Schoen Frederick J, Levy Robert J: Calcification of tissue heart valve substitutes: progress toward understanding and prevention. The Annals of thoracic surgery 79(3): 1072-80, Mar 2005.

Alferiev IS, Connolly JM, Levy RJ: A novel mercapto bisphosphonate as an efficient anticalcification agent for bioprosthetic tissues.  Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 690: 2543-2547, 2005.

Fishbein Ilia, Stachelek Stanley J, Connolly Jeanne M, Wilensky Robert L, Alferiev Ivan, Levy Robert J: Site specific gene delivery in the cardiovascular system. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society 109(1-3): 37-48, Dec 2005.

Perlstein I, Burton DY, Ryan K, DeFelice S, Simmers E, Campbell B, Connolly JM, Hoffman A, Levy RJ.: Post translational control of a cardiac ion channel transgene in vivo: clarithromycin  hmirp1 q9e interactions.  Human Gene Therapy 16: 906-910, 2005.

Song Cunxian, Wang Manyan, Levy R J: Immobilization of gene vector on polyurethane surface using monoclonal antibody for site-specific gene therapy. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 4: 4095-8, 2005.

Yellen BB, Forbes ZG, Halverson DS, Fridman G, Barbee KA, Chorny M, Levy RJ, Friedman G.: Targeted drug delivery to magnetic implants for therapeutic applications.  Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 293, 647-654 2005.

2004

Stachelek S J, Song C, Alferiev I, Defelice S, Cui X, Connolly J M, Bianco R W, Levy R J: Localized gene delivery using antibody tethered adenovirus from polyurethane heart valve cusps and intra-aortic implants. Gene therapy 11(1): 15-24, Jan 2004.

Connolly Jeanne M, Alferiev Ivan, Kronsteiner Allyson, Lu Zhibin, Levy Robert J: Ethanol inhibition of porcine bioprosthetic heart valve cusp calcification is enhanced by reduction with sodium borohydride. The Journal of heart valve disease 13(3): 487-93, May 2004.

Ryan Kenneth, Russ Andreas P, Levy Robert J, Wehr David J, You Jingtao, Easterday Mathew C: Modulation of eomes activity alters the size of the developing heart: implications for in utero cardiac gene therapy. Human gene therapy 15(9): 842-55, Sep 2004.

Ghazvini-Boroujerdi Marjan, Clark Jocelyn, Narula Navneet, Palmatory Elizabeth, Connolly Jeanne M, DeFelice Suzanne, Xu Jie, Jian Bo, Hazelwood Senator, Levy Robert J: Transcription factor Egr-1 in calcific aortic valve disease. The Journal of heart valve disease 13(6): 894-903, Nov 2004.

Cohen-Sacks H, Elazar V, Gao J, Golomb A, Adwan H, Korchov N, Levy RJ, Berger MR, Golomb G: Delivery and expression of pDNA embedded in collagen matrices. Journal of Control Release 95: 309-320, 2004.

2003

Alferiev Ivan, Stachelek Stanley J, Lu Zhibin, Fu Angela L, Sellaro Tiffany L, Connolly Jeanne M, Bianco Richard W, Sacks Michael S, Levy Robert J: Prevention of polyurethane valve cusp calcification with covalently attached bisphosphonate diethylamino moieties. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A 66(2): 385-95, Aug 2003.

Burton DY, Song C, Fishbein I, Hazelwood S, Li Q, DeFelice S, Connolly JM, Perlstein I, Coulter DA, Levy RJ: The incorporation of an ion channel gene mutation associated with the Long QT syndrome in a plasmid vector for site specific arrhythmia gene therapy: In vitro and in vivo feasibility studies. Human Gene Therapy 14: 907-922, 2003.

Jian B, Narula N, Li Q, Mohler ER, Levy RJ: Progression of aortic valve stenosis: TGF-b1 is present in calcified aortic valve cusps and promotes aortic valve interstitial cell calcification via apoptosis. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 75: 457-465, 2003.

Levy, RJ, Vyavahare N, Ogle M, Ashworth P, Bianco R, Schoen FJ: Inhibition of cusp and aortic wall calcification in ethanol and aluminum pretreated bioprosthetic heart valves in sheep: Background, mechanisms, and synergism. Journal of Heart Valve Disease 12: 209-216, 2003.

Ogle, M.F., Kelly, S.J., Bianco, R.W., Levy, R.J.: Calcification resistance with aluminum- ethanol treated porcine aortic valve bioprostheses in juvenile sheep. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 75: 1267-1273, 2003.

Panyam J, Dali MM, Sahoo SK, Ma W, Chakravarthi SS, Amidon GL, Levy RJ, Labhasetwar V: Polymer degradation and in vitro release of a model protein from poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nano- and microparticles. Journal of Controlled Release 92: 173-187, 2003.

Perlstein I, Connolly JM, Cui X, Song C, Li Q, Jones PL, Lu Z, DeFelice S, Klugherz B, Wilensky R, Levy RJ: DNA delivery from an intravascular stent with a denatured collagen polylactic-polyglycolic acid controlled release coating: Mechanisms of enhanced transfection. Gene Therapy 10: 1420-1428, 2003.

2002

Abrahams JM, Song C, Grady MS, Diamond SL, Levy RJ: Endovascular microcoil genedeliveryusing immobilized anti-adenovirus antibody for vector tethering. Stroke 33: 1376-1382, 2002.

Jian B, Xu J, Savani RC, Narula N, Liang B, Levy RJ: Serotonin mechanisms in heart valve disease I: Serotonin induced upregulation of TGF-â1 via G-protein signal transduction in aortic valve interstitial cells. American Journal of Pathology 161: 2111-2121, 2002.

Klugherz BD, Song C, DeFelice S, Cui X, Lu Z, Connolly J, Hinson JT,Wilensky R,Levy RJ: Gene delivery to pig coronary arteries from stents carrying antibody-tethered adenovirus. Human Gene Therapy 10: 443-445, 2002.

Li Q, Jones PL, Lafferty RP, Safer D, Narula N, Mohler E, Levy RJ: Thymosin â4 regulation, expression, and function in aortic valve interstitial cells. Journal of Heart Valve Disease 11: 726-735, 2002.

Xu J, Jian B, Chu R, Dunlop J, Rosenzweig-Lipson S, McGonigle P, Levy RJ, Liang B: Serotonin receptor mechanisms in heart valve disease II:  The 5-HT2A receptor and its signaling pathway in aortic valve interstitial cells. American Journal of Pathology 161: 2209-2218, 2002.

2001

Alferiev I, Vyavahare N, Song C, Connolly J, Hinson JT, Lu Z, Tallapragada S, Bianco R, Levy R: Bisphosphonate derivatized polyurethanes resist calcification. Biomaterials 22: 2683-2693, 2001.

Alferiev I, Vyavahare NR, Song CX, Levy RJ.: Elastomeric polyurethanes modified withgeminal bisphosphonate groups. Journal of Polymer Science 39: 105-116, 2001.

Alferiev IS, Hinson JT, Ogle M, Breuer E, Levy RJ: High reactivity of alkyl sulfides towards epoxides under conditions of collagen fixation--a convenient approach to 2-amino-4-butyrolactones. Biomaterials 22: 2501-2506, 2001.

Ciftci K, Levy RJ: Enhanced plasmid DNA transfection with lysosomotropic agents in cultured fibroblasts. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 21: 81-92, 2001.

Jian B, Jones PL, Mohler ER, Schoen FJ, Levy RJ: Matrix metalloproteinase-2 is associated with tenascin-C in calcific aortic stenosis. American Journal of Pathology 159: 321-327, 2001.

Levy RJ, Song C, Tallapragada, DeFelice S, Hinson JT, Vyavahare N, Connolly J, Ryan K, Li Q.: Localized adenovirus gene delivery using antiviral IgG complexation.  Gene Therapy 8: 659-667, 2001.

Raghuvanshi RJ, Mistra A, Talwar GP, Levy RJ, Labhasetwar V: Enhanced immune response with a combination of alum and biodegradable nanoparticles containing tetanus toxoid. J Microencapsul 18: 723-732, 2001.

2000

Alferiev IS, Vyavahare N, Song CX, Levy RJ: Calcification resistant polyurethanesmodified with geminal bisphosphonate groups. Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings 599: 287-292, 2000.

Cohen H., Levy R.J., Kousaaev V., Gao J., Fishbein I., Sosnowski S., Slomkowski S., Golomb G.: Sustained delivery and expression of DNA encapsulation in polymericnanoparticles. Gene Therapy 7: 1896-1905, 2000.

Desai M, Hilfinger J, Amidon G, Levy RJ, Labhasetwar V: Immune response with biodegradable nanospheres and alum: studies in rabbits using staphylococcal entertoxinB-toxoid. J. Microencapsulation 17: 215-225, 2000.

Klugherz BD, Jones PL, Cui X, Chen W, Meneveau NF, DeFelice S, Connolly J,  Wilensky R, Levy RJ: Gene delivery from a DNA-controlled release stent in porcine coronary arteries. Nature Biotechnology 18: 1181-1184, 2000.

Vyavahare N, Jones PL, Tallapragada S, Levy RJ: Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activity attenuates tenascin-C production and calcification of implanted purified elastin in rats. American Journal of Pathology 157: 885-893, 2000.

Vyavahare NR, Jones PL, Hirsch D, Schoen FJ, Levy RJ: Prevention of glutaraldehyde-fixed bioprosthetic valve calcification by alcohol pretreatment: further mechanistic studies. Journal of Heart Valve Disease 9: 561-566, 2000.

1999

Klugherz B, Meneveau N, Chen W, Wade-Whittaker F, Papandreou G, Levy RJ, Wilensky RL: Sustained intramural retention and regional redistribution following localvascular delivery of PLGA and liposomal nanoparticulate formulations containing probucol. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 4: 167-174, 1999.

Labhasetwar V, Bonadio J, Goldstein SA, Levy RJ: Gene transfection using biodegradable nanospheres: results in tissue culture and a rate osteotomy model. Colloids and Surfaces B:Biointerfaces 16: 281-290, 1999.

Mohler ER, Chawla MK, Chang AW, Vyavahare N, Levy RJ, Graham L, Gannon: Identification and characterization of calcifying valve cells from human and canine aortic valves. Journal of Heart Valve Disease 8: 254-260, 1999.

Schoen FJ, Levy RJ: Tissue Heart Valves: Current challenges and future research perspectives. Journal of  Biomedical  Materials Research 47: 439-465, 1999.

Vyavahare N, Ogle M, Schoen F, Levy RJ: Elastin calcification and its prevention with aluminum chloride pretreatment. American Journal of Pathology 155(3): 973-982, 1999.

Vyavahare N, Ogle M, Schoen FJ, Zand R, Gloeckner DC, Sacks M, Levy RJ: Mechanisms of bioprosthetic heart valve failure: Fatigue causes collagen denaturation and glycosaminoglycan loss. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 46: 44-50, 1999.

1998

Labhasetwar V, Song C, Humphrey W, Shebuski R, Levy RJ: Arterial uptake of biodegradable nanoparticles. Effect of surface modification. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 87: 1229-1234, 1998.

Labhasetwar V. Bonadio J. Goldstein S. Chen W. Levy RJ.: A DNA controlled-release coating for gene transfer: transfection in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 87: 1347-1350, 1998.

Labhasetwar V., Strickberger S.A., Underwood T., Davis J., Levy R.: Prevention of acute inducible atrial flutter in dogs using an ibutilide-polymer coated pacing electrode. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 31: 449-455, 1998.

Lee CH. Vyavahare N. Zand R. Kruth H. Schoen FJ. Bianco R. Levy RJ.: Inhibition of aortic wall calcification in bioprosthetic heart valves by ethanol pretreatment: biochemical and biophysical mechanisms. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 42: 30-37, 1998.

Song C., Labhasetwar V., Xiumin C.,  Underwood T., Levy R.: Arterial uptake of Biodegradable nanoparticles for intravascular local drug delivery: Results with an acute dog model. Journal of Controlled Release 54: 201-211, 1998.

Vyavahare N., Hirsch D., Lerner E., Baskin JZ., Zand R., Schoen F., Levy R.: Prevention of calcification of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked porcine aortic cusps by ethanol preincubation: Mechanistic studies of protein structure and water-biomaterial relationships. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 40: 577-585, 1998.

1997

Biedrzycki, L.M., Lerner, E., Levy, R.J., Schoen, F.J.: Differential calcification of cusps and aortic wall of failed stented porcine bioprosthetic valves. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 34: 411-415, 1997.

Chen W, Schoen FJ, Myers DJ, Levy RJ: Synergistic inhibition of calcification of porcine aortic root with preincubation in FeC13 and alpha-amino oleic acid in a rat subdermal model. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 38(1): 43-48, 1997.

Desai MP, Labhasetwar V, Walter E, Levy RJ, Amidon GL: The mechanism of uptake of biodegradable microparticles in Caco-2 cells is size dependent. Pharm Res 14: 1568-73, 1997.

Desai, M.P., Labhasetwar, V., Walter, E., Levy, R.J., Amidon, G.L: Size dependent uptake of biodegradable microparticles in Caco-2 cells. Pharmaceutical Research 14: 1568-1573, 1997.

Gott J.P., Girardot M., Girardot J., Hall J., Whitlark J., Horsley W.S., Dorsey L., Levy R., Chen W., Schoen F., Guyton R.: Refinement of the Alpha Aminooleic Acid Bioprosthetic Valve Anticalcification Technique. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 64: 50-58, 1997.

Gottsauner-Wolf, M., Jang, Y., Lincoff, A.M., Cohen, J.L., Labhasetwar, V., Poptik, E.J.,Forudi, F., Guzman, L., DiCorletto, P.E., Levy, R.J., Topol, E.J., Ellis, S.G.: Influence of local delivery of the protein tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor tyyrphostin-47 on smooth muscle cell proliferation in the rat carotid balloon injury model. American Heart Journal 133(3): 329-334, 1997.

Hammond, R.W., Oana, H., Schwinefus, J.J., Bonadio, J., Levy, R.J., Morris, M.D.: Capillary electrophoresis of supercoiled and linear DNA in dilute hydroxyehtyl cellulose solution. Analytical Chemistry 69: 1192-1196, 1997.

Labhasetwar, V., Chen, B., Muller, D.W.M., Bonadio, J., Ciftci, K., March, K., Levy, R.J.: Gene-based therapies for restenosis. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 24: 109-120, 1997.

Labhasetwar, V., Song, C., Levy, R.J.: Nanoparticle drug delivery system for restenosis. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 24: 63-85, 1997.

Levy, R.J.: Strategies to mitigate mineralization in the bioprosthetic or homograft cusp and aortic wall. Journal of Heart Valve Disease 6: 7-8, 1997.

Sintov, A., Levy, R.J.: Polymeric drug delivery of enzymatically degradable pendant agents: peptidyl-linked procainamide model system studies. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 146: 55-62, 1997.

Song, C.X., Labhasetwar, V., Levy, R.J.: Controlled release of U-86983 from double-layer biodegradable matrices: effect of additives on release mechanism and kinetics. Journal of Controlled Release 45: 177-192, 1997.

Song, C.X., Labhasetwar, V., Murphy, H., Qu, X., Humphrey, W.R., Shebuski, R.J., Levy, R.J.: Formulation and characterization of biodegradable nanoparticles for intravascular local drug delivery. Journal of Controlled Release 43: 197-212, 1997.

Vyavahare, N., Hirsch, D., Lerner, E., Baskin, J.Z., Schoen, F.J., Bianco, R., Kruth, H.S., Zand, R., Levy, R.J.: Prevention of bioprosthetic heart valve calcification by ethanol preincubation:  efficacy and mechanisms. Circulation 95: 479-488, 1997.

Vyavahare, N.R., Chen,W., Joshi, R.R., Lee, C., Hirsh, D., Levy, J. Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Current  Progress in Anticalcification for Bioprosthetic and Polymeric Heart Valves. Cardiovascular Pathology 6: 219-229, 1997.

1996

Desai, M., Labhasetwar, V., Amidon, G.L., Levy, R.J.: Gastrointestinal uptake of biodegradable microparticles effect of particle size. Pharmaceutical Research 13(12): 1838-1845, 1996.

Guzman, L.A., Labhasetwar, V., Song, C., Jang, Y., Lincoff, A.M., Levy, R., Topol, E.J.: Local intraluminal infusion of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles.  A novel approach for prolonged drug delivery after balloon angioplasty. Circulation 94(6): 1441-1448, 1996.

Joshi, R.R., Underwood, T., Frautschi, J.R., Phillips, Jr. R.E., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Calcification of polyurethanes implanted subdermally in rats is enhanced by calciphylaxis. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 31: 201-207, 1996.

Muller, D.W., Gordon, D., Topol, E.J., Levy, R.J., Golomb, G.: Sustained-release local hirulog therapy decreases early thrombosis but not neointimal thickening after arterial stenting. American Heart Journal 131(2): 211-218, 1996.

1995

Anderson, J.M., Cima, L.G., Eskin, S.G., Graham, L.M., Greisler, H., Hubbell, J., Levy, R.J., Naughton, G., Northup, S.J., Ratner, B.D., Scott-Burden, T., Termin, P., Didisheim, P.: Tissue engineering in cardiovascular disease. Tissue Engineering 1(4): 323-326, 1995.

Labhasetwar, V., Levy, R.J.: Novel delivery of antiarrhythmic agents, Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 29(1): 1-5, 1995.

Labhasetwar, V., Underwood, T., Schwendeman, S.P., Levy, R.J.: Iontophoresis for modulation of cardiac drug delivery. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 92: 2612-2616, 1995.

Levy, R.J., Labhasetwar, V., Song, C., Lerner, E., Chen, W., Vyavahare, N., Qu, X.: Polymeric drug delivery systems for treatment of cardiovascular calcification, arrhythmias and restenosis. Journal of Controlled Release 36: 137-147, 1995.

Levy, R.J., Qu, X., Underwood, T., Trachy, J., Schoen, F.J.: Calcification of valved aortic allografts in rats:  effects of age, crosslinking, and inhibitors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 29: 217-226, 1995.

Schwendeman, S.P., Labhasetwar, V., Levy, R.J.: Model features of a cardiac iontophoretic drug delivery implant. Pharmaceutical Research 12: 790-795, 1995.

Villa, A.E., Guzman, L.A., Poptic, E.J., Labhasetwar, V., D'Souza, S., Farrell, C.L., Plow, E.F., Levy, R.J., DiCorleto, P., Topol, E.J.: The effects of antisense c-myb oligonucleotides on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and response to vessel wall injury. Circulation Research 76: 505-513, 1995.

Vyavahare, N.R., Qu, X., Lee, M., Behari, P., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Synergism of calcium-ethanehydroxybisphosphonate (CaEHBP) and FeCl3:  controlled release polymers for preventing calcification of bioprosthetic aortic wall. Journal of Controlled Release 34: 97-108, 1995.

1994

Chen, W., Kim, J.D., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: 2-amino oleic acid derivatization of glutaraldehyde pretreated bioprosthetic tissues for counteracting calcification:  a review and comparison of its efficacy and mechanism in various animal models. Cells and Materials 4(4): 419-428, 1994.

Chen, W., Kim, J.D., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Effect of 2-amino oleic acid exposure conditions on the inhibition of calcification of glutaraldehyde cross-linked porcine aortic valves. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 28: 1485-1495, 1994.

Chen, W., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J: Mechanism of efficacy of 2-amino oleic acid for inhibition of calcification of glutaraldehyde pretreated porcine bioprosthetic heart valves. Circulation 90: 323-329, 1994.

Joshi, R.R., Frautschi, J.R., Phillips, Jr., R.E., Levy, R.J.: Phosphonated polyurethanes that resist calcification. Journal of Applied Biomaterials 5: 65-77, 1994.

Labhasetwar, V., Underwood, T., Gallagher, M., Murphy, G., Langberg, J., Levy, R.J.: Sotalol controlled release systems for arrhythmias:  in vitro characterization, in vivo drug disposition, and electrophysiologic effects. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 83(2), 156-164 1994.

Labhasetwar, V., Underwood, T., Heil, Jr., R.W., Gallagher, M., Langberg, J., Levy, R.J.: Epicardial administration of ibutilide from polyurethane matrices:  effects on defibrillation threshold and electrophysiologic parameters. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 24: 826-840, 1994.

Muller, D.W.M., Golomb, G., Gordon, D., Levy, R.J.: Site-specific dexamethasone delivery for the prevention of neointimal thickening after vascular stent implantation. Coronary Artery Disease 5: 435-442, 1994.

Schoen, F.J., Hirsch, D., Bianco, R.W., Levy, R.J.: Onset and progression of calcification in porcine aortic bioprosthetic valves implanted as orthotopic mitral valve replacements in juvenile sheep. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 108: 880-887, 1994.

Schwendeman, S.P., Amidon, G.L., Labhasetwar, V., Levy, R.J.: Modulated drug release using iontophoresis through heterogeneous cation-exchange membranes.  2.  Influence of cation-exchanger content on membrane resistance and characteristic times. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 83: 1482-1494, 1994.

Villa, A.E., Guzman, L.A., Chen, W., Golomb, G., Levy, R.J., Topol, E.J.: Local delivery of dexamethasone for prevention of neotimal proliferation after balloon arterial injury in the rat carotid model. Journal of Clinical Investigation 93: 1243-1249, 1994.

1993

Frautschi, J.R., Chinn, J.A., Phillips, Jr., R.E., Zhao, Q.H., Anderson, J.M., Joshi, R., Levy, R.J.: Degradation of polyurethanes in vitro and in vivo:  Comparison of different models, Colloids and Surfaces. Biointerfaces 1: 305-313, 1993.

Hirsch, D., Drader, J., Pathak, Y.V., Yee, R., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J. : Synergistic inhibition of the calcification of glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium in a rat subdermal model by FeCl3 and ethanehydroxydiphosphonate:  preincubation and polymeric controlled release studies. Biomaterials 14(9): 705-711, 1993.

Hirsch, D., Drader, J., Thomas, T.J., Schoen, F.J., Levy, J.T., Levy, R.J.: Inhibition of calcification of glutaraldehyde pretreated porcine aortic valve cusps with sodium dodecyl sulfate:  preincubation and controlled release studies. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 27: 1477-1484, 1993.

Johnston, T.P., Webb, C.L., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Site-specific delivery of ethanehydroxy diphosphonate from refillable polyurethane reservoirs to inhibit bioprosthetic tissue calcification. Journal of Controlled Release 25: 227-240, 1993.

Schwendeman, S.P., Amidon, G.L., Levy, R.J.: Determinants of the modulated release of antiarrhythmic drugs by iontophoresis through polymer membranes. Macromolecules 26: 2264-2272, 1993.

1992

Bolling, S.F., Lin, H., Ning, X., Levy, R.J.: Local release polymeric controlled immunotherapy of cardiac transplants in rats. Polymers for Advanced Technologies 3: 345-350, 1992.

Hirsch, D., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Effects of metallic ions and diphosphonates on inhibition of pericardial bioprosthetic tissue calcification and associated alkaline phosphatase activity. Biomaterials 14(5): 371-377, 1992.

Johnston, T.P., Webb, C.L., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Assessment of the in vitro transport parameters for ethanehydroxydiphosphonate through a polyurethane membrane:  a potentially refillable reservoir drug delivery device. ASAIO Journal 38: M611-M616, 1992.

Labhasetwar, V., Kadish, A., Underwood, T., Sirinek, M., Levy, R.J.: The efficacy of controlled release d-sotalol-polyurethane epicardial implants for ventricular arrhythmias due to acute ischemia in dogs. Journal of Controlled Release 23: 75-86, 1992.

Schoen, F.J., Golomb, G., Levy, R.J.: Calcification of bioprosthetic heart valves:  a perspective on models. Journal of Heart Valve Disease 1(1): 110-114, 1992.

Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Bioprosthetic heart valve calcification:  membrane-mediated events and alkaline phosphatase. Bone and Mineral 17: 129-133, 1992.

Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J., Hilbert, S.L., Bianco, R.W.: Antimineralization treatments for bioprosthetic heart valves: assessment of efficacy and safety. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 104(5): 1285-1288, 1992.

Schwendeman, S.P., Amidon, G.L., Meyerhoff, M.E., Levy, R.J.: Modulated drug release using iontophoresis through heterogeneous cation-exchange membranes: membrane preparation and influence of resin cross-linkage. Macromolecules 25(9): 2531-2540, 1992.

Schwendeman, S.P., Amidon, G.L., Meyerhoff, M.E., Levy, R.J.: Modulated drug release using iontophoresis through heterogeneous cation-exchange membranes: membrane preparation and influence of resin cross-linkage. Macromolecules 25(9): 2531-2540, 1992.

Siden, R., Flowers, W.E., Levy, R.J.: Epicardial propranolol administration for ventricular arrhythmias in dogs:  matrix formulation and characterization. Biomaterials 13(11): 764-770, 1992.

Siden, R., Kadish, A., Flowers, W., Kutas, L., Bieneman, B.K., DePietro, J., Jenkins, J.M., Gallagher, K.P., Levy, R.J.: Epicardial controlled release verapamil prevents ventricular tachycardia episodes induced by acute ischemia in a canine model. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 19(5): 798-809, 1992.

Webb, C.L., Nguyen, N.M., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Calcification of allograft aortic wall in a rat subdermal model.  Pathophysiology and inhibition by Al3+ and aminodiphosphonate preincubations. American Journal of Pathology 141(2): 487-496, 1992.

1991

Bolling, S.F., Lin, H., Annesley, T.M., Boyd, J.A., Gallagher, K.P., Levy, R.J.: Local cyclosporine immunotherapy of heart transplants in rats enhances survival. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 10(4): 577-583, 1991.

Labhasetwar, V., Levy, R.J.: Implants for site-specific drug delivery. Journal of Applied Biomaterials 2: 211-212, 1991.

Levy, R.J., Schoen, F.J., Anderson, H.C., Harasaki, H., Koch, T.H., Brown, W., Lian, J.B., Cumming, R., Gavin, J.B.: Cardiovascular implant calcification:  a survey and update. Biomaterials 12(8): 707-714, 1991.

Levy, R.J., Schoen, F.J., Flowers, W.E., Staelin, S.T.: Initiation of mineralization in bioprosthetic heart valves:  studies of alkaline phosphatase activity and its inhibition by AlCl3 or FeCl3 preincubations. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 25: 905-935, 1991.

Pathak, Y.V., Boyd, J., Johnston, T.P., Levy, J.T., Golomb, G., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Scanning electron microscopy studies of the prevention of bioprosthetic heart valve calcification with controlled release polymeric matrices. Scanning Electron Microscopy: Cells and Materials 1(1): 65-72, 1991.

Webb, C.L., Schoen, F.J., Flowers, W.E., Alfrey, A.C., Horton, C., Levy, R.J.: Inhibition of mineralization of glutaraldehyde-pretreated bovine pericardium by AlCl3:  mechanisms and comparisons with FeCl3, LaCl3, and Ga(NO3)3 in rat subdermal model studies. American Journal of Pathology 138(4): 971-981, 1991.

1990

Becker, J.B., Robinson, T.E., Barton, P., Sintov, A., Siden, R., Levy, R.J.: Sustained behavioral recovery from unilateral nigrostriatal damage produced by the controlled release of dopamine from a silicone polymer pellet placed into the denervated striatum. Brain Research 508: 60-64, 1990.

Johnston, T.P., Boyd, J.A., Ciesliga, B.L., Schoen, F.J., Amidon, G., Levy, R.J.: Controlled release of ethanehydroxy diphosphonate from polyurethane reservoirs to inhibit calcification of bovine pericardium used in bioprosthetic heart valves. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 59: 95-104, 1990.

Levy, R.J., Johnston, T.P., Sintov, A., Golomb, G.: Controlled release implants for cardiovascular disease. Journal of Controlled Release 11: 245-254, 1990.

Pathak, Y., Boyd, J., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Prevention of calcification of glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium through controlled release polymeric implants:  studies of Fe3+, Al3+, protamine sulfate, and levamisole. Biomaterials 11: 718-723, 1990.

Sintov, A., Scott, W.A., Gallagher, K.P., Levy, R.J.: Conversion of ouabain induced ventricular tachycardia in dogs with epicardial lidocaine:  pharmacodynamics and function. Pharmaceutical Research 7: 28-33, 1990.

Sintov, A., Scott, W.A., Siden, R., Levy, R.J.: Efficacy of epicardial controlled-release lidocaine for ventricular tachycardia induced by rapid ventricular pacing in dogs. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 16: 812-817, 1990.

Webb, C.L., Flowers, W.E., Boyd, J., Rosenthal, E., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Al3+ binding studies and metallic cation effects on bioprosthetic heart valve calcification in the rat subdermal model. ASAIO Transactions 36: 56-59, 1990.

Webb, C.L., Flowers, W.E., Horton, C., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Long term efficacy of Al3+ for prevention of bioprosthetic heart valve calcification. ASAIO Transactions 36: M408-M410, 1990.

1989

Johnston, T.P., Bove, E.L., Bolling, S.F., Boyd, J.A., Ciesliga, B.L., Amidon, G.L., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Controlled release of 1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate:  in vitro assessment and effects on bioprosthetic calcification in sheep tricuspid valve replacement. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 52: 139-148, 1989.

Sintov, A., Siden, R., Levy, R.J.: Sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic assay using 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate for monitoring controlled release lidocaine in plasma. Journal of Chromatography, Biomedical Applications 496(2): 335-344, 1989.

Webb, C.L., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Covalent binding of aminopropanehydroxy-diphosphonate to glutaraldehyde residues in pericardial bioprosthetic tissue. Experimental and Molecular Pathology 50: 291-302, 1989.

1988

Johnston, T.P., Bove, E.L., Bolling, S.F., Schoen, F.J., Boyd, J.A., Golomb, G., Levy, R.J.: Local controlled release of 1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate using silicone - rubber matrices. ASAIO Transactions 34: 835-838, 1988.

Johnston, T.P., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Prevention of calcification of bioprosthetic heart valve leaflet by Ca2+ diphosphonate pretreatment. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 77: 740-744, 1988.

Schoen, F.J., Harasaki, H., Kim, K.M., Anderson, H.C., Levy, R.J.: Biomaterial-associated calcification:  pathology, mechanisms and strategies for prevention. Journal of Applied Biomaterials 22: 11-36, 1988.

Sintov, A., Scott, W., Dick, M., Levy, R.J.: Cardiac controlled release for arrhythmia therapy: lidocaine-polyurethane matrix studies. Journal of Controlled Release 8: 157-165, 1988.

Tsao, J.W., Schoen, F.J., Shankar, R., Sallis, J.D., Levy, R.J.: Retardation of calcification of bovine used in bioprosthetic heart valves by phosphocitrate and a synthetic analogue. Biomaterials 9: 393-397, 1988.

Webb, C.L., Benedict, J.J., Schoen, F.J., Linden, J.A., Levy, R.J.: Inhibition of bioprosthetic heart valve calcification with aminodiphosphonate covalently bound to residual aldehyde groups. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 46: 309-316, 1988.

Webb, C.L., Phelps, L.L., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Aminodiphosphonate or Al3+ Preincubation inhibits calcification of aortic homografts in the rat subdermal model. ASAIO Transactions 34: 851-854, 1988.

Webb, C.L., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Al3+ preincubation inhibits calcification of bioprosthetic heart valve tissue in the rat subdermal model. ASAIO Transactions 34: 855-859, 1988.

1987

Golomb, G., Dixon, M., Smith, M.S., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Controlled release drug delivery of diphosphonates to inhibit bioprosthetic heart valve calcification:  release rate modulation with silicone matrices via drug solubility and membrane coating. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 76: 271-276, 1987.

Golomb, G., Schoen, F.J., Smith, M.S., Linden, J., Dixon, M., Levy, R.J.: The role of glutaraldehyde-induced crosslinks in calcification of bovine pericardium used in cardiac valve prostheses. American Journal of Pathology 127: 122-130, 1987.

Levy, R.J., Schoen, F.J., Lund, S.A., Smith, M.S.: Prevention of leaflet calcification of bioprosthetic heart valves with diphosphonate injection therapy:  experimental studies of optimal dosages and therapeutic durations. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 95: 551-557, 1987.

Schoen, F.J., Kujovich, J.L., Webb, C.L., Levy, R.J.: Chemically determined mineral content of explanted porcine aortic valve bioprostheses:  correlation with radiographic assessment of calcification and clinical data. Circulation 76: 1061-1066, 1987.

Webb, C.L., Benedict, J.J., Schoen, F.J., Linden, J.A., Levy, R.J.: Inhibition of bioprosthetic heart valve calcification with covalently bound amino-propanehydroxydiphosphonate. Transactions of the American Society of Artificial Internal Organs 33: 592-595, 1987.

1986

Golomb, G., Dixon, M., Smith, M.S., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: Inhibition of bioprosthetic heart valve calcification by sustained local delivery of Ca and Na diphosphonate via controlled release matrices. Transactions of the American Society of Artificial Internal Organs 32: 587-590, 1986.

Golomb, G., Langer, R., Schoen, F.J., Smith, M.S., Choi, Y.M., Levy, R.J.: Controlled release of diphosphonate to inhibit bioprosthetic heart valve calcification:  dose-response and mechanistic studies. Journal of Controlled Release 4: 181-194, 1986.

Jonas, R.A., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J., Castaneda, A.R.: Biological sealants and knitted Dacron-porosity and histological comparisons of vascular graft materials with and without collagen and fibrin glue pretreatments. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 41: 657-663, 1986.

Levy, R.J., Howard, S.L., Oshry, L.J.: Carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) containing proteins of human calcified atherosclerotic plaque solubilized by EDTA:  molecular weight distribution and relationship to osteocalcin. Atherosclerosis 59: 155-160, 1986.

Levy, R.J., Schoen, F.J., Sherman, F.S., Nichols, J., Hawley, M.A., Lund, S.A.: Calcification of subcutaneously implanted type I collagen sponges:  effects of formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. American Journal of Pathology 122: 71-82, 1986.

Schoen, F.J., Tsao, J., Levy, R.J.: Calcification of bovine pericardium used in cardiac valve bioprostheses: role of glutaraldehyde-modified structural components in bioprosthetic tissue mineralization. American Journal of Pathology 123: 134-145, 1986.

1985

Levy, R.J., Golomb, G., Wolfrum, J., Lund, S.A., Schoen, F.J., Langer, R. : Local controlled-release of diphosphonates from ethylenevinylacetate matrices prevents bioprosthetic heart valve calcification. Transactions of the American Society of Artificial Internal Organs  31: 459-463, 1985.

Levy, R.J., Hawley, M.A., Schoen, F.J., Lund, S.A., Liu, P.Y.: Inhibition by diphosphonate compounds of calcification of porcine bioprosthetic heart valve cusps implanted subcutaneously in rats. Circulation 71: 349-356, 1985.

Levy, R.J., Wolfrum, J., Schoen, F.J., Hawley, M.A., Lund, S.A., Langer, R.: Inhibition of calcification of bioprosthetic heart valves by local controlled-release diphosphonate. Science 228: 190-192, 1985.

Nelson, A.C., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J.: SEM methodology for study of the pathophysiology of calcification in bioprosthetic heart valves. Scanning Electron Microscopy I: 209-213, 1985.

Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J., Nelson, A.C., Bernhard, W.F., Nashef, A., Hawley, M.: Onset and progression of experimental bioprosthetic heart valve calcification. Laboratory Investigation 52: 523-532, 1985.

1984

Sherman, F.S., Schoen, F.J., Hawley, M., Nichols, J., Levy, R.J.: Collagen cross-links:  a critical determinant of bioprosthetic heart valve calcification. Transactions of the American Society of Artificial Internal Organs XXX: 577-581, 1984.

1983

Levy, R.J., Gundberg, C.M., Scheinman, R.: The identification of the vitamin K-dependent bone protein osteocalcin as one of the carboxyglutamic acid containing proteins present in calcified atherosclerotic plaque and mineralized heart valves. Atherosclerosis 46: 49-56, 1983.

Levy, R.J., Schoen, F.J., Howard, S.L.: Mechanism of calcification of porcine bioprosthetic aortic valve cusps:  role of T-lymphocytes. American Journal of Cardiology 52: 629-631, 1983.

Levy, R.J., Schoen, F.J., Levy, J.T., Nelson, A.C., Howard, S.L., Oshry, L.J.: Biologic determinants of dystrophic calcification and osteocalcin deposition in glutaraldehyde-preserved porcine aortic valve leaflets implanted subcutaneously in rats. American Journal of Pathology 113: 143-155, 1983.

Levy, R.J., Zenker, J.A., Bernhard, W.F.: Porcine bioprosthetic valve calcification in bovine left ventricle to aorta shunts:  studies of the deposition of vitamin K-dependent proteins. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 36: 187-192, 1983.

1982

Fishbein M C, Levy R J, Ferrans V J, Dearden L C, Nashef A, Goodman A P, Carpentier A: Calcifications of cardiac valve bioprostheses. Biochemical, histologic, and ultrastructural observations in a subcutaneous implantation model system. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 83(4): 602-9, Apr 1982.

1981

Lian, J.B., Levy, R.J., Bernhard, W.F., Szycher, M.: LVAD mineralization and gammacarboxyglutamic acid containing proteins in normal and pathologically mineralized tissues. Transactions of the American Society of Artificial Internal Organs 27: 683-689, 1981.

1980

Levy, R.J., Zenker, J.A., Lian, J.B.: Vitamin K-dependent calcium binding proteins in aortic valve calcification. Journal of Clinical Investigation 65: 563-566, 1980.

Sanders, S.P., Levy, R.J., Freed, M.D., Norwood, W.I., Castaneda, A.R.: Use of Hancock porcine xenografts in children and adolescents. American Journal of Cardiology 46: 429-438, 1980.

1979

Levy, R.J., Lian, J.B.: Gammacarboxyglutamate excretion and warfarin therapy. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 25: 562-571, 1979.

Levy, R.J., Lian, J.B., Gallop, P.M.: Atherocalcin, a gammacarboxyglutamic acid containing protein from atherosclerotic plaque. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 91: 41-49, 1979.

1978

Levy, R.J., Rosenthal, A., Castaneda, A.R., Nadas, A.S.: Growth after surgical repair of d-transposition of the great vessels with intact ventricular septum. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 25: 225-232, 1978.

Levy, R.J., Rosenthal, A., Fyler, D.C., Nadas, A.S.: Birthweight of infants with congenital heart disease. American Journal of Diseases of Children 132: 249-257, 1978.

Levy, R.J., Rosenthal, A., Miettinen, O.: Determinants of growth in patients with ventricular septal defect. Circulation 57: 793-799, 1978.

1977

Levy, R.J., Rosenthal, A., Freed, M.D., Smith, C.D., Eraklis, A., Nadas, A.S.: Persistent pulmonary hypertension in an infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia successfully managed with Tolazoline. Pediatrics 60: 740-742, 1977.

1970

Krovetz, L.J., Simon, A.L., Levy, R.J., Tift, W.: Effects of angiographic contrast media on left ventricular function. Johns Hopkins Medical Journal 127: 172-179, 1970.

Levy, R.J., Rosenquist, G.C.: Anatomical variations in tricuspid atresia:  report of two cases with previously undescribed lesions. Johns Hopkins Medical Journal 126: 177-183, 1970.

Rosenquist, G.C., Levy, R.J., Rowe, R.D.: Right atrial-left ventricular relationships in tricuspid atresia. American Heart Journal 80: 493-500, 1970.

Abstracts

2020

Zakharchenko A, Keeney S, Stachelek S, Alferiev I, Levy R.: Polymer modification of bioprosthetic heart valves to mitigate structural degeneration. American Chemical Society meeting; March 22-26,2020; Philadelphia PA. Abstract 3309668 March 2020.

Castillero E, Howsmon DP, Rego BV, Xue Y, Gorman RC, Sacks M, LEVY R, Ferrari G : Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation is Associated With Impaired Transforming Growth Factor/Bone Morphogenic Protein Signaling and Increased CD45+ Cell Presence in the Mitral Valve Interstitial Cell Population-MP424  AHA Scientific Sessions 2020, Nov 13-17, virtual November 2020.

D'Angelo A, Castillero E, LEVY R, Ferrari G: Serotonin Transporter (SERT) Knockout Leads to Increased Myocardial and Mitral Valvular Fibrosis in a Murine Model-P2299. AHA Scientific Sessions 2020 Nov 13-17, virtual November 2020.

Xue Y, Kossar A, THIENE G, Levy R, Ferrari G: On the Mechanisms of Accelerated Calcification of Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Biomaterials in Juvenile Animal Models-P2312. AHA Scientific Sessions 2020 Nov 13-17, virtual November 2020.

2019

Guerrero D, Alferiev IS, Nguyen F, Guan P, Kolla V, Soberman D, Fishbein I, Levy RJ, Brodeur GM, Chorny M: Nanocarriers with reversibly hydrophobized co-drugs for treating aggressive neuroblastoma. 2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine, New York, NY Mar  2019.

Guerrero D, Alferiev IS, Nguyen F, Guan P, Kolla V, Soberman D, Fishbein I, Levy RJ, Brodeur GM, Chorny M.: Formulation and evaluation of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles as injectable anticancer co-drug carriers. Conference on Polymers in Life Sciences, May 14-15, 2019, Philadelphia, PA May  2019.

Guerrero D, Alferiev IS, Nguyen F, Guan P, Kolla V, Soberman D, Fishbein I, Levy RJ, Brodeur GM, Chorny M.: Poloxamer-based polymeric prodrugs as an experimental therapy for aggressive solid tumors. Conference on Polymers in Life Sciences, University of Sciences,  May 14-15, Philadelphia, PA. May 2019.

Hooshdaran B, Pressly BB, Alferiev IS, Wilensky RL, Gorman RC, Smith JD, Hazen S, Levy RJ, Fishbein I: Stent-based gene therapy of restenosis with an oxidation-resistant apoA1 mutant. AHA Vascular Discovery Annual Meeting, 2019, May 14-16, Boston, MA May 2019.

Inamdar VV, Fitzpatrick E, Alferiev IS, Nagaswami C, Levy RJ, Fishbein I, Stachelek SJ: CD47 surface functionalization increases the biocompatibility of metal stents. AHA Vascular Discovery Annual Meeting, 2019 May 14-16, Boston, MA May 2019.

Aghali (Elhashmi) A, Keeney S, Fitzpatrick E, Shukla H, Castillero E, Fishbein I, Ferrari G, Levy RJ.: Serotonin Related Gene Expression Patterns in Aortic Valve Interstitial Cells Are Altered by Proliferation and Serotonin Transporter Inhibition. AHA Scientific Sessions 2019; November 16-18, Philadelphia, PA Nov 2019 Notes: Abstract #15914.

Inamdar VV, Fitzpatrick E, Alferiev I, Nagasami C, Levy RJ, Fishbein I, Stachelek SJ.: Peptide CD47 functionalization of metal surfaces prevents inflammatory cell attachment, activation and promotes anti-inflammatory phenotype in macrophages. AHA Scientific Sessions 2019; November 16-18, Philadelphia, PA Nov 2019 Notes: Abstract #13700.

Pressly BB, Hooshdaran B, Alferiev IS, Zoltick P, Wilensky RL, Gorman R, Smith JD, Hazen SL, Levy R, Fishbein I.: The Incorporation of Oxidation Resistant ApoA1-4WF in Adeno-Associated Viral and Lentiviral Gene Vectors with Robust Cholesterol Efflux In Vitro. AHA Scientific Sessions 2019; November 16-18, Philadelphia, PA November 2019 Notes: Abstract #14577.

Zakharchenko A, Keeney S, Takano H, Stachelek S, Ferrari G, Levy R.: Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products Results in Inflammation-mediated Structural Degeneration of Bioprosthetic Heart Valves. AHA Scientific Sessions 2019; November 16-18, Philadelphia, PA Nov 2019 Notes: Abstract #14543.

Books

Mineralization in Natural and Synthetic Biomaterials. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. P. Li, T. Kokubo, R. Levy, C. Scheid (eds.). Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA, 599, 2000.

Molecular Interventions and Local Drug Delivery in Cardiovascular Disease. E.Edelman and R.J. Levy (eds.). W.B. Saunders Company, Ltd., London, 1995.

Chapters

2020

FJ Schoen, RJ Levy: Chapter 9: Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Calcification: Clinicopathologic Correlations, Mechanisms, and Prevention. Cardiovascular Calcification and Bone Mineralization, Contemporary Cardiology. E. Aikawa, J.D. Hutcheson  (eds.). Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Page: 183-215, 2020 Notes: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-46725-8_9.

Schoen FJ, Levy RJ. Tam H, Vyavahare N. : Chapter 2.4.5: Pathological Calcification of Biomaterials. Biomaterials Science, 4th ed.  WR Wagner, G Zhang, SE Sakiyama-Elbert, MJ Yaszemski (eds.). Academic Press, Page: 973-994. June 2020.

2014

Fishbein I, Chorny M, Alferiev I, Adamo RF, Levy RJ.  : Prevention of restenosis with stent-based vascular gene delivery: Gene eluting stents. Restenosis: Causes, Treatment and Clinical Outcomes. Lofti A (eds.). Nova Publishing, 2014 Notes: In Press.

Tengood JE, Fishbein I, Levy RJ, Chorny M: Nanomedicines for Restenosis Treatment  Frontiers of Nanobiomedical Research; Handbook of Nanobiomedical Research Vol 2: Applications in Therapy. V. Torchilin (eds.). World Scientific 2013, London, 2: 39-87, October 2014 Notes: ISBN: 978-981-4520-64-5; Vol 2 of Fundamentals, Applications and Recent Developments.

Fishbein I, Chorny M, Alferiev I, Adamo RF, Levy RJ.: Prevention of Restenosis with Stent-Based Vascular Gene Delivery: Gene Eluting Stents. Coronary Artery Restenosis: Causes, Treatment and Clinical Outcomes. Lofti A (eds.). Nova Publishing, Page: 239-261, May 2014 Notes: Chapter 14. pii: e005648. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.005648.

2003

Fishbein I, Chorny M, Alferiev I, Adamo RF, Levy RJ.: Prevention of Restenosis with Stent-Based Vascular Gene Delivery: Gene Eluting Stents. Coronary Artery Restenosis: Causes, Treatment and Clinical Outcomes. Lofti A (eds.). Nova Publishing, Page: 239-261, May 2014 Notes: Chapter 14. pii: e005648. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.005648.

Fishbein I, Perlstein I, Levy RJ: Gene Therapy for Stents for Instent Restenosis. Polymeric Gene Delivery: Principles and Applications. MM Amiji (eds.). CRC Press, In Press, 2003, 2003.

Klugherz BD, Levy RJ, Wilensky RL: Stent-based gene delivery. Handbook of Local Drug Delivery. Camenzind and Scheerder (eds.). Martin Dunitz, London, In Press, 2003, 2003.

2000

Vyavahare N, Levy RJ: Drug delivery to prevent calcification  Encyclopedia of Controlled Drug Delivery. Mathiowitz (eds.). J. W. Wiley, New York, Page: 113-119, 2000.

1997

Vyavahare N, Schroeder R, Ogle M, Schoen FJ, Levy RJ: Ethanol and aluminum chloride preincubation to prevent bioprosthetic heart valve calcification.  Advances in Anticalcific and Antidegenerative Treatment of Heart Valve Bioprostheses. S.Gabbay, D.J.Wheatley (eds.). Silent Partners, Inc, Austin, Page: 173-188, 1997.

1996

Levy, RJ: Controlled-Release Drug Matrices for Local Immunosuppression of Organ Transplants. Local Immunosuppression of Organ Transplants. Gruber S.A. (Ed.)  (eds.). R.G. Landers Company, Austin, 1996, 1996.

1995

Levy, RJ: Local Immunosuppression of Organ Transplants. Local Immunosuppression of Organ Transplants  Weglinski K. (Ed.)  (eds.). R.G. Landers Company, 1995, 1995.

Levy, RJ: Molecular Interventions and Local Drug Delivery in Cardiovascular Diseases.  Electrophysiologic Disorders. Molecular Interventions and Local Drug Delivery in Cardiovascular Disease. Edelman E.R. (Ed.)  (eds.). W.B. Saunders Company, Ltd., London, 1995, 1995.

Levy, RJ: Feedback Control of Antiarrhythmic Agents. Molecular Interventions and Local Drug Delivery in Cardiovascular Disease. Edelman E.R. (Ed.)  (eds.). W.B. Saunders Company, Ltd., London, 1995, 1995.

Levy, RJ: Iontophoresis for Modulating Cardiac Drug Delivery of Antiarrhythmic Agents. Molecular Interventions and Local Drug Delivery in Cardiovascular Disease. Edelman E.R. (Ed.)  (eds.). W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1995, 1995.

1994

Levy, RJ: Techniques in Cardiovascular Drug Delivery - Surfactant Derivatization, Polymer Implants and Iontophoresis. Polymer Site - Specific Pharmacotherapy. Domb A.J. (Ed.) (eds.). Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, 1994, 1994.

1993

Levy, RJ: Pharmaceutic Stents and Regional Therapy for Restenosis. Textbook of Interventional Cardiology. Topol E. (Ed.) (eds.). Second Edition, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1993, 1993.

1992

Levy, RJ: Pathologic Calcification of Biomaterials. Biomaterials Science:  An Introductory Text. Ratner B.D., Hoffman A.S. (Eds.) (eds.). Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, 1992, 1992.

1991

Levy, RJ: Polymeric Controlled Release of Cardiovascular Drug. Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Applications of Polymers. Gebelein C.G. (Eds.)  (eds.). Plenum Press, New York, 1991, 1991.

Levy, RJ: Material Considerations for Improved Cardiac Valve Prostheses. Replacement Cardiac Valves. Bodnar E., Frater R. (Eds.)  (eds.). Pergamon Press, New York, 1991, 1991.

Levy, RJ: Calcification of Bioprosthetic Heart Valves. Replacement Cardiac Valves. Bodnar E., Frater R. (Eds.) (eds.). Pergamon Press, New York, 1991, 1991.

1990

RJ: Cuspal Components in Bioprosthetic Valve Calcification: Elucidation and Modification. Surgery for Heart Valve Disease. Bodnar E. (Ed.)  (eds.). JCR Publishers, London, 1990, 1990.

1989

Levy, RJ: Polymer Matrices for Delivery of Lidocaine to the Myocardium. Drug Delivery Systems. Ensminger W., Selam J.L. (Eds.) (eds.). Futura Publishing Co., Mount Kisco, 1989, 1989.

1988

Levy, RJ: Covalent Binding of Aminodiphosphonate to Prevent Cardiovascular Calcification. Chemical Aspects of Mineralization. Sikes C.S., Wheeler A.P. (Eds.)  (eds.). University of South Alabama Press, Mobile, 1988, 1988.

1987

Levy, RJ: Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Pathology: Pathologic Features of Valve Failure and Pathobiology of Calcification in  Cardiovascular Clinics. Breast A.N. (Ed.)  (eds.). Cardiovascular Clinics, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 1987, 1987.

Levy, RJ: Prevention of Cardiovascular Calcification With Controlled Release Diphosphonate. Artificial Organs. Andrade J. (Ed.)  (eds.). VCH, New York, 1987, 1987.

1986

Levy, RJ: Pathophysiology of Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Calcification. Biological and Bioprosthetic Valves. Bodnar E., Yacoub M.H. (Eds.)  (eds.). York, New York, 1986, 1986.

1985

Levy, RJ: Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Calcification. The Chemistry and Biology of Mineralized Tissues. Butler W. (Ed.)  (eds.). Ebsco Media, Birmingham, 1985, 1985.

Levy, RJ: Calcification of Cardiac Valve Bioprostheses: Host and Implant Factors. Calcium in Biological Systems. Rubin R.P., Weiss G.B., Putney J.W. (Eds.) (eds.). Plenum Press, New York, 1985, 1985.

1983

Levy, RJ: The Pathogenesis of Porcine Xenograft Calcification. Biocompatible Polymers, Metals and Composites. Szycher M. (Ed.)  (eds.). Technomic Publishing Co., Lancaster, 1983, 1983.

Levy, RJ: Prevention of Tissue Valve Calcification by Chemical Techniques in  Cardiac Bioprostheses. Cohn L.H., Gallucci V. (Eds.)  (eds.). Yorke Medical Books, New York, 1983, 1983.

1981

Levy, RJ: Retrieval Analysis of Calcific Degeneration of Tissue Valves. Implant Retrieval:  Material and Biologic Analysis. Weinstein A., Gibbons D., Brown S., Ruff W. (Eds.)  (eds.). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1981.

1980

Levy, RJ: Other Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins. Calcium Binding Proteins:  Structure and Function. Siegel F.L. (Ed.)  (eds.). Elsevier, North Holland, 1980, 1980.

1979

Gammacarboxyglutamic Acid and Atherosclerotic Plaque in Suttie J.W. (Ed.) Vitamin K Metabolism and Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins. University Park Press, Baltimore, 1979.

Gammacarboxyglutamate Excretion and Vitamin K Metabolism in Suttie J.W. (Ed.) Vitamin K Metabolism and Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins. University Park Press, Baltimore, 1979.

Posters and Presentations

2019

Inamdar VV, Fitzpatrick E, Alferiev I, Nagaswami C, Levy RJ, Fishbein I, Stachelek SJ: Enhanced Biocompatibility of Stents via CD47 Surface Functionalization. Society for Biomaterials 2019 Annual Meeting; April 3-6, Seattle, WA April 2019 Notes: oral presentation.

Guerrero DT, Alferiev IS, Nguyen F, Guan P, Kolla V, Soberman D, Fishbein I, Levy RJ, Brodeur GM, Chorny M: In Situ Activatable Co-Drugs For Nanoparticle-Based Therapy Of Aggressive Neuroblastoma   BMES (Biomechanical Engineering Society) Annual Meeting 2019; October 16-19; Philadelphia, PA; Podium presentation October 2019.



Rock C, Frasca A, Keeney S, Ferrari G, Levy R: Susceptibility of Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Materials to Glycation: Model System Characterization   BMES Annual Meeting 2019; October 16-18; Philadelphia, PA. Poster October 2019.

Rock C, Frasca A, Keeney S, Ferrari G, Levy R.: Susceptibility of Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Materials to Glycation: Model System Characterization. BMES (Biomaterial Engineering Society) Annual Meeting 2019; October 17-19, Philadelphia, PA. Poster #P-TH-814.  October 2019.

Xue Y, Rock C, Frasca A, Keeney S, Takano H, Levy R, Ferrari G: The Effect Of Serum Albumin Infiltration And Glycation On The Micro-Architecture Of Bioprosthetic Heart Valves  BMES (Biomechanical Engineering Society) Annual Meeting 2019, Philadelphia, PA. Oral presentation October 2019.

Zakharchenko A, Keeney S, Stachelek S, Levy R, Ferrari G.: The Pro-inflammatory Role of Advanced Glycation End Products Accumulation in Bioprosthetic Heart Valves. BMES (Biomaterial Engineering Society) Annual Meeting 2019; October 17-19, Philadelphia, PA. Poster #P-TH-440, October 2019.

Invited Lectures

2019

Levy, R.J. "Pediatric Cardiovascular Devices"; US FDA, White Oak, MD.  Nov 2019.

Levy, R.J. "Advanced Glycation End Products Contribute to the Pathophysiology of Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Structural Degeneration" BMES (Biomedical Engineering Society) National Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. Oct 2019.

Levy, R.J. "Calcification in Polymeric Valves"; W. L. Gore Inc, Flagstaff, AZ (April). Aprl 2019.

Awards and Honors

2016, CHOP Faculty Mentor Award
2015, Co-recipient, The Yitzhak Rabin Public Service Award, Philadelphia-Israel Chamber of Commerce
2012, Best Early Stage Company, Vascular Magnetics, Inc. (R.Levy Co-Founder), Life Sciences Award, Philadelphia Business Journal.
2009, Keynote Speaker, Controlled Release Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
2008, 1st Morris Green Lecturer, Riley Children's Hospital - Indiana University School of Medicine
2008, Forbes Technology Award for Magnetic Cell Targeting
2006, Keynote Speaker, Pharmaceutical Sciences Graduate Program, University of Nebraska
2005, Keynote Speaker, NIH-NSF Bioengineering and Bioinformatics Institute Symposium on Innovative Biomaterials at Clemson University
2004, C. Walton Lilehei Lecture, University of Minnesota
2002, Luigi Mastroianni Clinical Innovator Award, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
2002, Johnson and Johnson Focused Giving Program Award
2002-2003, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Technology Award
2001, Discover Magazine Technology Award
2000, Member, John Morgan Society, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
1998, Senior Author, Founders Award Paper, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research
1998, Fellow, American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering
1996, Honorary Professorship, Institute of Biomedical Engineering of Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
1996, Honorary Professorship, Cardiovascular Institute and Fu Wai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
1995-1996, University of Michigan Technology Award
1995, Forchheimer Sabbatical Professor, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
1994, Fellow, National Academy of Biomaterials Science and Engineering
1992, Clemson Award, Society for Biomaterials
1992, Community Leader Award,  Jewish Community Center, Ann Arbor, MI
1990-1997, President, Ann Arbor Holocaust Memorial Foundation
1990, Alpha Phi Foundation Cardiovascular Research Prize
1988, American Pediatric Society
1988, Ebert Prize of the American Pharmaceutical Association
1987-1990, Investigator, United States - Israel Binational Science Foundation
1987, Rackham International Fellowship with The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
1986, Established Investigator of the American Heart Association
1985, Whitaker Health Sciences Foundation Award
1983, Society for Pediatric Research
1982, American Academy of Pediatrics Young Investigator Award
1966, Phi Beta Kappa
1965, Phi Eta Sigma

Editorial and Academic Positions

Editorial Positions

2011-present, Drug Delivery and Translational Research, Founding editorial Member; 1st Issue January 2011
2005-present, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology,Editorial Board
1998-present, Biomaterials, Editorial Board
1996-present, Guest Editor, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
1992-present, Editorial Board, Biomaterial-Living System Interactions (BIOMIR), Moscow
1989-present, Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, reviewer
1988-present, American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, reviewer
1987-present, Stroke, Reviewer
1986-present, Trends in Molecular Medicine, Reviewer
1986-present, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Reviewer
1985-present, Human Gene Therapy, Reviewer

Reviewer

Cancer Research
Journal of Biomaterial Science: Polymer Edition
Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Journal of Clinical Investigation
Journal of Heart Valve Disease
Journal of Microencapsulation
Journal of Pharmaceutical Science
Molecular Therapy
Nature Biotechnology
Human Gene Therapy
Journal of Cardiovascular Pathology
Gene Therapy
FASEB Journal
Circulation Research
Circulation
Annals of Thoracic Surgery
American Journal of Pathology
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Cardiovascular Pathology

Academic and Institutional Committees

2019-present, Luigi Mastrioanni Clinical Innovator Award Committee
2018-present, Co-Chair, Search Committee for Research Director, CHOP Cardiac Center
2017-present, Advisory Board, CHOP Neuroscience T32 (Michael Robinson, PhD, PI
2017-present, CHOP Fetal Therapy Oversight Committee
2016-present, Reviewer, Israel Science Foundation
2016-present, Ad Hoc member, NIH BTSS Member Conflict Study Section
2016-present, Drugs and Devices Sub-Committee; Novel Therapeutics Development for Pediatric Conditions Working Group; CHOP Research Institute Strategic Planning
2016-present, Novel Therapeutics Development for Pediatric Conditions Working Group; CHOP Research Institute Strategic Planning
2016-present, Chair, Committee on Entrepreneurship and IP/Faculty Development Working Group; CHOP Research Institute Strategic Planning
2014-present, Chair, Mentorship Committee for Karl Degenhardt, MD, PhD.
2012-present, Mentorship Oversight Committee, Division of Cardiology
2011-present, Translational Core Lab Advisory Committee Meeting
2008-present, IND/IDE Review Committee
2008-present, Research Steering Committee, Division of Cardiology
2006-present, Targeted Therapeutics Program Committee, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
2005-present, Chair, Scholarship Oversight Committee for each 2nd and 3rd year Cardiology Fellow (12/year)
1999-present, Director, NHLBI Training Program, Molecular Therapeutics for Pediatric Cardiology

Leadership and Memberships

Memberships in Professional Organizations

International

2007-present, Society for Heart Valve Disease
2005-present, Society for Heart Valve Disease

National

2005-present, Heart Valve Society of America