Education and Training
MD - Approbation als Arzt, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany
General Surgery - Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA
Anesthesiology - Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA
Anesthesiology, Critical Care Medicine, and Pain Management - Florence Nightingale Hospital, Düsseldorf, Germany
Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine - Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA
Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia - Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA
PhD - Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany (cum laude)
Titles and Academic Titles
Division Chief, Cardiac Anesthesiology
Endowed Chair in Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesiology
Professor of Anesthesiology & Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Departments and Services
Szmuk P, Andropoulos D, McGowan F, Brambrink A, Lee C, Lee KJ, McCann ME, Liu Y, Saynhalath R, Bong CL, Anderson BJ, Berde C, De Graaff JC, Disma N, Kurth D, Loepke AW, Orser B, Sessler DI, Skowno JJ, von Ungern-Sternberg BS, Vutskits L, Davidson A: An open label pilot study of a dexmedetomidine-remifentanil-caudal anesthetic for infant lower abdominal/lower extremity surgery: The T REX pilot study. Paediatr Anaesth 29(1): 59-67, 2019
Wei K, Chen P, Shen FY, Zhang Y, Liu YH, Wang ZR, Loepke AW, Wang YW, Deng M: Defining the Vulnerability Window of Anesthesia-Induced Neuroapoptosis in Developing Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells - A Transgenic Approach Utilizing POMC-EGFP Mice. Neuroscience 415: 59-69, 2019
Tong D, Godale CM, Kadakia FK, Gu Z, Danzer CSK, Alghamdi A, Zhao P, Loepke AW, Danzer SC: Immature murine hippocampal neurones do not develop long-term structural changes after a single isoflurane exposure. Br J Anaesth 123(6): 818-826, 2019
Miller JW, Ding L, Gunter JB, Lam JE, Lin EP, Paquin JR, Li BL, Spaeth JP, Kreeger RN, Divanovic A, Mahmoud M, Loepke AW: Comparison of intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral pentobarbital sedation for infant transthoracic echocardiography – A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. Anesth Analg 126(6): 2009-2016, 2018
Miller JW, Balyan R, Dong M, Mahmoud M, Lam JE, Pratap J, Paquin JR, Li BL, Spaeth JP, Vinks A, Loepke AW: Does intranasal dexmedetomidine provide adequate plasma concentrations for sedation in children – A pharmacokinetic study. Br J Anaesth 120(5): 1056-1065, 2018
Miller JW, Spaeth JP, Ding L, Lam J, Pasquin J, Lin E, Divanovic AA, Li BL, Baskar S, Loepke AW: Sedation methods for transthoracic echocardiography in children with Trisomy 21 – A retrospective study. Paediatr Anaesth 27(5): 531-539, 2017.
Lee JR, Lin EP, Hofacer RD, Upton B, Lee SY, Ewing L, Joseph B, Loepke AW: Alternative technique or mitigating strategy for sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration: A randomised controlled dose-escalation study of dexmedetomidine in neonatal rats. Br J Anaesth 119(3): 492–505, 2017. Accompanied by two invited editorials by Vutskits L & Sall JW and by Sanders RD, Andropoulos D, Ma D, and Maze M.
Miller JW, Xue B, Hossain M, Zhang MZ, Loepke AW, Kurth CD: Comparison of dexmedetomidine and chloral hydrate sedation for transthoracic echocardiography in infants and toddlers: A randomized clinical trial. Paediatr Anaesth 26(3): 266-72, 2016.
Miller JW, Divanovic AA, Hossain M, Mahmoud MA, Loepke AW: Dosing and efficacy of intranasal dexmedetomidine sedation for pediatric transthoracic echocardiography: A retrospective study. Can J Anaesth 63(7): 834-41, 2016.
Levy RJ, Herbstman JB, Bosnjak ZJ, Loepke AW, McGowan FX: Biomarkers, Genetics and Epigenetic Studies to Explore the Neurocognitive Effects of Anesthesia in Children. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 28(4): 384–8, 2016.
Jiang Y, Tong D, Hofacer RD, Loepke AW, Lian Q, Danzer SC: Long-term fate-mapping to assess the impact of postnatal isoflurane exposure on hippocampal progenitor cell productivity. Anesthesiology 125(6): 1159-1170, 2016. Accompanied by invited editorial by Sall JW.
Miller JW, Xue B, Hossain M, Zhang MZ, Loepke AW, Kurth CD: Comparison of dexmedetomidine and chloral hydrate sedation for transthoracic echocardiography in infants and toddlers: A randomized clinical trial. Paediatr Anaesth 2015 Nov 30. doi: 10.1111/pan.12819
Osterop SF, Virtanen MA, Loepke JR, Joseph B, Loepke AW, Vutskits L: Developmental stage-dependent impact of midazolam on calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin expression in the immature rat medial prefrontal cortex during the brain growth spurt. Int J Dev Neurosci 2015; 45:19-28
Backeljauw B, Holland SK, Altaye M, Loepke AW: Cognition and Brain Structure Following Early Childhood Surgery with Anesthesia. Pediatrics 2015; 136(1): e1-e12
Lin EP, Lee J-R, Loepke AW: Anesthetics and the Developing Brain – The Yin and Yang. Curr Anesthesiol Rep 2015; 5(2): 177-189
Davidson AJ, Becke K, de Graaff J, Giribaldi G, Habre W, Hansen T, Hunt RW, Ing C, Loepke AW, McCann ME, Ormond GD, Pini Prato A, Salvo I, Sun L, Vutskits L, Walker S, Disma N: Anesthesia and the developing brain: A way forward for clinical research. Paediatr Anaesth 2015; 25(5): 447-52
Lin EP, Miles L, Hughes EA, McCann JC, Vorhees CV, McAuliffe JJ, Loepke AW: Combination of mild hypothermia and sevoflurane affords long-term protection in a modified neonatal mouse model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Anes Analg 2014; 119(5): 1158–73. Accompanied by invited editorial by Vutskits L & Patel PM.
Miller JW, Vu D, Chai PJ, Kreutzer J, Hossain MM, Jacobs JP, Loepke AW: Patient and procedural characteristics for successful and failed immediate tracheal extubation in the operating room following cardiac surgery in infancy. Paediatr Anaesth 2014; 24(8): 830-9
Lei SY, Hache M, Loepke AW: Clinical Research Into Anesthetic Neurotoxicity: Does Anesthesia Cause Neurological Abnormalities in Humans? J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2014; 26(4): 349-57
Deng M, Hofacer RD, Jiang C, Joseph B, Hughes EA, Danzer SC, Loepke AW: Brain regional vulnerability to anaesthesia-induced neuronal cell death shifts with age during exposure and extends into adulthood for some regions. Br J Anaesth 2014; 113(3): 443-451
Deng M, Loepke AW: Anesthetic Neurotoxicity – Preclinical and Clinical Research. J Perioper Sci 2014; 1: 6 (13 Jul 2014)
Lin EP, Soriano SG, Loepke AW: Anesthetic Neurotoxicity. Anesthes Clin 2014; 32(1):133-155
Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Absalom AR, Blomgren K, Brambrink A, Crosby G, Culley DJ, Giffard RG, Herold KF, Loepke AW, Ma D, Orser BA, Planel E, Slikker W Jr., Soriano SG, Stratmann G, Vutskits L, Xie Z, Hemmings HC Jr.: Anaesthetic Neurotoxicity and Neuroplasticity: An expert group report and statement based on the BJA Salzburg Seminar. Br J Anaesth 2013; 111(2): 143-51.
Hofacer RD, Deng M, Ward CG, Joseph B, Hughes EA, Jiang C, Danzer SC, Loepke AW: Cell-age specific vulnerability of neurons to anesthetic toxicity. Ann Neurol 2013; 73(6): 695-704. Accompanied by invited editorial by Xie Z.
Istaphanous GK, Ward CG, Nan X, Hughes EA, McCann JC, McAuliffe JJ, Danzer, SC, Loepke AW: Characterization and Quantification of Isoflurane-Induced Developmental Apoptotic Cell Death In Mouse Cerebral Cortex. Anes Analg 2013; 116(4): 845-54.
Mintz CD, Wagner M, Loepke AW: Preclinical research into the effects of anesthetics on the developing brain: promises and pitfalls. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012; 24(4): 362-7
Murphy BL, Hofacer R, Faulkner CR, Loepke AW, Danzer, SC: Inverted granule cells and tufted basal dendrites in the intrahippocampal kainic acid injection model of epilepsy. Epilepsia 2012; 53(5): 908-21
Ward CG, Loepke AW: Anesthetics and Sedatives: Toxic or Protective for the Developing Brain? Pharmacol Res 2012; 65: 271-4
Santos VR, de Castro OW, Pun RY, Hester MS, Murphy BL, Loepke AW, Garcia-Cairasco N, Danzer SC: Contributions of mature granule cells to structural plasticity in temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuroscience 2011; 197:348-57
Wise-Faberowski L, Loepke AW: Anesthesia During Surgical Repair for Congenital Heart Disease and the Developing Brain: Neurotoxic or Neuroprotective? Paediatr Anaesth 2011; 21(5): 554-9. Featured in Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society Fall 2011 Newsletter
Boat A, Sadhasivam S, Loepke AW, Kurth CD: Outcome for the Extremely Premature Neonate: How Far Can We Push the Edge? Paediatr Anaesth 2011; 21(7): 765-7
Istaphanous GK, Howard J, Nan X, Hughes EA, McCann JC, McAuliffe JJ, Danzer SC, Loepke AW: Comparison of the Neuroapoptotic Properties of Equipotent Anesthetic Concentrations of Desflurane, Isoflurane, or Sevoflurane in Neonatal Mice. Anesthesiology 2011; 114(3): 578-87. Featured in Anesthesiology Page 2 blog.
Murphy BL, Pun RYK, Yin H, Faulkner CR, Loepke AW, Danzer SC: Heterogeneous Integration of Adult-Generated Granule Cells Into the Epileptic Brain. J Neurosci 2011; 31(1): 105-17
Istaphanous GK, Ward CG, Loepke AW: The Impact of the Perioperative Period on Neurocognitive Development, with a Focus on Pharmacological Concerns. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2010; 24(3): 433-449
Loepke AW: Developmental Neurotoxicity of Sedatives and Anesthetics – A Concern For Neonatal and Pediatric Critical Care Medicine? Pediatr Crit Care Med 2010; 11(2): 217-226
Stratmann G, Sall JW, May LDV, Loepke AW, Lee MT: Beyond Anesthetic Properties - Effects of Inhalational Anesthetics on Brain Cell Death, Neurogenesis and Long-Term Neurocognitive Function. Anesth Analg 2010; 110(2): 431-437
Danzer SC, He X, Loepke AW, McNamara JO: Structural Plasticity of Dentate Granule Cell Presynaptic Terminals During the Development of Limbic Epilepsy. Hippocampus 2010; 20(1): 113-124
McAuliffe JJ, Loepke AW, Miles L, Joseph B, Hughes E, Vorhees CV: Desflurane, Isoflurane and Sevoflurane Provide Limited Neuroprotection Against Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in a Delayed-Preconditioning Paradigm. Anesthesiology 2009; 111(3): 533-46
Istaphanous GK, Loepke AW: General Anesthetics and The Developing Brain. Current Opinion in Anesthesiology 2009; 22(3): 368-373
Kurth CD, McCann JC, Wu J, Miles L, Loepke AW: Cerebral Oxygen Saturation-Time Thresholds for Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Piglets. Anesth Analg 2009; 108(4): 1268-77.
Loepke AW, Istaphanous GK, McAuliffe JJ, Miles L, Hughes EA, McCann JC, Harlow KE, Kurth CD, Williams MT, Vorhees CV, Danzer SC: The Effects of Neonatal Isoflurane Exposure in Mice on Brain Cell Viability, Adult Behavior, Learning, and Memory. Anesth Analg 2009; 108(1): 90-104
Loepke AW, Soriano SG: An Assessment of the Effects Of General Anesthetics on Developing Brain Structure and Neurocognitive Function. Anesth Analg 2008; 106: 1681-1707.
Sun LS, Li G, Dimaggio C, Byrne M, Rauh V, Brooks-Gunn J, Kakavouli A, Wood A; Coinvestigators of the Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) Research Network: Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children: Time for an Answer? Anesthesiology 2008; 109(5): 757-61
Nelson LA, McCann JC, Loepke AW, Wu J, Dor BB, Kurth CD: Development and Validation of a Multiwavelength Spatial Domain Near-Infrared Oximeter to Detect Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia. J Biomed Opt 2006; 11(6): 064022
Loepke AW, McCann JC, Kurth CD, McAuliffe JJ: The Physiologic Effects of Isoflurane Anesthesia in Neonatal Mice. Anesth Analg 2006; 102: 75-80.
Selected as one of the Best Pediatric Anesthesia Papers Published in 2006 by expert panel at American Society of Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL
Loepke AW, Golden, JA, McCann JC, Kurth CD: Injury Pattern of the Neonatal Brain After Low-Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass in a Piglet Model. Anesth Analg 2005; 101: 340-8
Galinkin JL, Kurth CD, Shi H, Priestley MA, Loepke AW, Adamson PC: The Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Cerebral Spinal Fluid Penetration of Intravenous Topiramate in Newborn Pigs. Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition 2004; 25: 265-71
Ditsworth D, Priestley MA, Loepke AW, Ramamoorthy C, McCann JC, Staple L, Kurth CD: Apoptotic Neuronal Death Following Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest in Piglets. Anesthesiology 2003; 98: 1119-27
Loepke AW, Priestley MA, Schultz SE, McCann JC, Kurth CD: Desflurane Improves Outcome After Low-Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Newborn Pigs. Anesthesiology 2002; 97: 1521-7
Hartmannsgruber MWB, Silverman DG, Halaszynski TM, Bobart V, Brull SJ, Wilkerson C, Loepke AW, Atanassoff PG: Comparison of Ropivacaine 0.2% and Lidocaine 0.5% for Intravenous Regional Anesthesia in Volunteers. Anesth Analg 1999; 89: 727-31
Miller J, Divanovic A, Bernard P, Shaw E, Kalin M, Mahmoud M, Loepke AW: Nasal Dexmedetomidine Sedation for Infant TTEcho. Presented at Cardiology 2015: 18th Annual Update on Pediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease organized by the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 2/2015, Ft. Lauderdale, FL
Loepke AW, Soriano SG: Impact of Pediatric Surgery and Anesthesia on Brain Development. In: Pediatric Anesthesia. 6th Edition, 2019. Edited by Gregory GA & Andropoulos DB. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, Chapter 45
Loepke AW, Davidson AJ: Surgery, Anesthesia, and the Immature Brain. In: A Practice of Anesthesia for Infants and Children, 6th Edition, 2018. Edited by Coté CJ, Lerman J, and Todres ID. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA, Chapter 25
Lin EP, Loepke AW, Mossad EB: Cardiac Catheterization. In: Clinical Pediatric Anesthesia: A Case-Based Handbook, 2nd Edition, 2018, Edited by Goldschneider KR, Davidson AJ, Wittkugel EP, and Skinner AV. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, Chapter 33
Grogan KL, Loepke AW: Anesthetic Considerations for Cardiac and Non-Cardiac Surgery in the Child with Congenital Cardiac Disease. In: Paediatric Cardiology: Expert Consult - Online and Print. 4th Edition, to be published in 2018. Edited by Anderson RH, Baker EJ, Redington A, Rigby ML, Penny D, and Wernovsky G. Churchill Livingstone, London, UK, Chapter 8
Soriano SG, Vutskits L, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Hemmings HC; 2016 BJA Neurotoxicology and Neuroplasticity Study Group: Thinking, fast and slow: highlights from the 2016 BJA seminar on anaesthetic neurotoxicity and neuroplasticity. Br J Anaesth 119(3): 443-447, 2017
Loepke AW, Vutskits L: What lessons for clinical practice can be learned from systematic reviews of animal studies? The case of anesthetic neurotoxicity. Paediatr Anaesth 2016 Jan; 26(1):4-5. doi: 10.1111/pan.12826, invited editorial
Loepke AW, Vutskits L: Reply to Hooijmans, Carlijn; Wever, Kimberley; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Scheffer, Gert Jan, regarding their comment 'The usefulness of systematic reviews of animal studies; shooting the messenger'. Paediatr Anaesth 2016 Aug; 26(8): 853-4. doi: 10.1111/pan.12958
Spaeth JP, Loepke AW: Anesthesia for Left-Sided Obstructive Lesions. in: Anesthesia for Congenital Heart Disease. 3rd Edition, September 2015. Edited by Andropoulos DB, Stayer SA, Mossad EB, Miller-Hance WC. Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, Chapter 22, pp. 497-515.
Loepke AW, Davidson AJ: Surgery, Anesthesia, and the Immature Brain. In: A Practice of Anesthesia for Infants and Children, 5th Edition, February 2013. Edited by Coté CJ, Lerman J, and Todres ID. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA, Chapter 23, pp. 492-509.
Loepke AW, McCann ME: Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity. In: A Practical Approach to Neuroanesthesia, 1st Edition, 2013, Edited by Mongan PD, Soriano SG, and Sloan TB, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, Chapter 24, pp. 307-316.
Loepke AW, Soriano SG: Impact of Pediatric Surgery and Anesthesia on Brain Development. In: Pediatric Anesthesia. 5th Edition, March 2012. Edited by Gregory GA & Andropoulos DB. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, Chapter 41, pp. 1183-1218.
Istaphanous GK, Loepke AW: Pulmonary Hypertension. In: Clinical Pediatric Anesthesia: A Case-Based Handbook, 1st Edition, February 2012, Edited by Goldschneider KR, Davidson AJ, Wittkugel EP, and Skinner AV. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, Chapter 35, pp. 341-50.
Lin EP, Loepke AW: Cardiac Catheterization. In: Clinical Pediatric Anesthesia: A Case-Based Handbook, 1st Edition, February 2012, Edited by Goldschneider KR, Davidson AJ, Wittkugel EP, and Skinner AV. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, Chapter 33, pp. 321-30.
Spaeth JP, Loepke AW: Anesthesia for Left-Sided Obstructive Lesions. In: Anesthesia for Congenital Heart Disease. 2nd Edition, 2010. Edited by Andropoulos DB, Stayer SA, Russell IA. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, Chapter 21, pp. 398-418.
Posters and Presentations
Ewing L, Lee JR, Joseph B, McCann JC, Loepke AW: Effects of anesthesia on brain structure in neonatal rodents. Presented at the 2016 Biomedical Research Internship for Minority Students Poster Presentation, 8/2016, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.
Loepke AW. “More than Gas Exchange: Teamwork Between Perfusion and Anesthesia During Cardiac Surgery.” Cardiology 2020, Orlando, FL. February 2020.
Loepke AW. “The 12th Annual Jack Downes Lecture in Cardiac Anesthesia and Critical Care: Taking Better Care of Caregivers.” Cardiology 2020, Orlando, FL. February 2020.
Loepke AW. “Insight on Cardiac Intensive Care: Sedatives and Their Potential Toxicities.”, Cardiology 2020, Orlando, FL. February, 2020.
Loepke AW. “SmartTots Preclinical Workshop – Animal Models”, SmartTots Investigator Meeting, New York, NY. March, 2019.
Loepke AW. Neuroprotection or mitigation: What is new? Invited Speaker and Panelist, EuroSTAR - SmartTots Scientific Network Meeting on Pediatric Anesthesia and Neurotoxicity, organized by the Department of Anesthesia, Gaslini Children's Hospital, 05/2017, Genoa, Italy.
Loepke AW. Strength and limitations of clinical studies - The view of fundamental researchers. Invited Speaker and Panelist, EuroSTAR - SmartTots Scientific Network Meeting on Pediatric Anesthesia and Neurotoxicity, organized by the Department of Anesthesia, Gaslini Children's Hospital, 05/2017, Genoa, Italy.
Loepke AW. Safe Paediatric Anaesthesiology: Neurotoxicity and General Anaesthesia: The Age Issue. Invited Speaker and Panelist, Euroanaesthesia 2016, The European Society of Anaesthesiology Annual Meeting, 05/2016, London, United Kingdom.
Loepke AW. Neonatal Anesthesia: Is Dexmedetomidine as an Alternative or Protective Strategy Ready for Prime Time? Invited Speaker, British Journal of Anaesthesia Special Seminar on Anaesthetic Neurotoxicity and Neuroplasticity, 05/2016, London, United Kingdom.
Loepke AW. Single Ventricle Physiology: Managing the patient with half a heart, Invited Speaker and Panelist, 2016 Pediatric Anesthesia Conference, Cook Children’s Medical Center, 05/2016, Ft. Worth, TX.
Loepke AW. Anesthetics and the Developing Brain: From Bench to Bedside and Back Again, Invited Speaker and Panelist, 2016 Pediatric Anesthesia Conference, Cook Children’s Medical Center, 05/2016, Ft. Worth, TX.
Loepke AW. Lost in translation? - Bridging the gap between basic and clinical research into the effects of anesthetics on the developing brain. Invited Speaker and Panelist at Pediatric Anesthesia and Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) Symposium, organized by Department of Pediatric Anesthesia, Columbia University, 04/2016, New York, NY.
Loepke AW. Neurotoxicity in the Developing Brain: An Update for the Practitioner, Invited Speaker and Panelist, American Society of Anesthesiologists 2015 Meeting, 9/2015, San Diego, CA,
Loepke AW. Morphology, distribution and modulators of anesthetic neurotoxicity in the developing brain, Invited Speaker and Panelist, Mechanism of Anesthesia Conference 2015, 6/2015, Bonn, Germany.
Awards and Honors
2015, Best article of the year, selected for the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center 2014/2015 Annual Report by the Departments of Radiology and Anesthesiology
2013, Featured Abstract in IARS Bulletin for 2013 International Anesthesia Research Society Meeting
2012, Best Abstract of the Meeting; Society for Pediatric Anesthesia Winter Meeting
2012, 2016, 2019, Top 10% of Reviewers for Anesthesiology, selected by the journal’s Editor-in-Chief
2010-2019, Best Doctors in America, Pediatric Cardiovascular Anesthesia
2009, Best Abstract of the Meeting – First Place, Basic Science Research, International Anesthesia Research Society Annual Meeting
2008, Best Pediatric Anesthesia Abstract, American Society of Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting
2007, Best Abstract of Pediatric Anesthesia Section, International Anesthesia Research Society, 81st Clinical & Scientific Congress
2006, The Best Pediatric Anesthesia Papers Published in 2006 – Expert Panel Selection, American Society of Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting
2006, Best Abstracts of the Meeting – Second Place, International Anesthesia Research Society, 80th Clinical & Scientific Congress
2002, Young Investigator Award - First Place, Society for Pediatric Anesthesia
1998, Selected for Clinical Scientist Track, Department of Anesthesiology, Thomas Jefferson Medical College
Editorial and Academic Positions
2015-present, Pediatric Anesthesia, Editorial Board
2013-present, Journal of Perioperative Science, Editorial Board
2012-present, Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, Adhoc Editorial Board for PANDA Symposium
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Brain Research Bulletin
British Journal of Anaesthesia
British Medical Journal
European Journal of Anaesthesiology
European Journal of Pain
Hormone and Metabolic Research
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Journal of Applied Physiology
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Leadership and Memberships
Memberships in Professional Organizations
2008-present, Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society
2000-present, Society for Pediatric Anesthesia
1996-present, International Anesthesia Research Society
2004-present, American Academy of Pediatrics, Subspecialty Fellow
1996-present, American Society of Anesthesiologistse
Patient Experience Ratings
About the Patient Experience Rating System
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