Tibial torsion is an inward twisting of the shin bones (the bones that are located between the knee and the ankle). Tibial torsion causes the child's feet to turn inward, or have what is also known as a "pigeon-toed" appearance. It is typically seen among toddlers.
Tibial torsion can occur due to the position of the baby in the uterus. It also has a tendency to run in families. Typically, a child's walking style looks like that of his or her parents.
When the child is first learning how to walk, tibial torsion can create an intoeing appearance. As the feet toe in, the legs look like they are bowed. The bowed leg stance actually helps children achieve greater balance as they stand. Their balance is not as steady when they try to stand and walk with their feet close together or with their feet turned out. This may cause them to trip and fall.
The diagnosis of tibial torsion is made by a history and physical examination by your child's doctor. During the examination, the doctor obtains a complete prenatal and birth history of the child and asks if other family members are known to have tibial torsion. Typically, the diagnosis can be made without an X-ray.
Specific treatment for tibial torsion will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
The extent of the condition
Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
The twisting of the shin bones usually improves with time. As the child grows, walking will become more normal, usually around 5 to 8 years of age.
Occasionally, braces or special shoes are prescribed by the doctor.
Tibial torsion has a very good prognosis. Many cases correct themselves as the child grows. On rare occasions, tibial torsion can be severe and surgery may be required to straighten the shin bones.
It is important to know that tibial torsion does not lead to arthritis or any other future health problems.