Chitra Ravishankar, MD

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Chitra Ravishankar, MD, is a board-certified attending cardiologist in the Cardiac Center at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia with expertise in heart and heart/lung transplantation.

Locations: Main Hospital

Phone: 215-590-4040

Education and Training

Medical School

University of Bombay, Bombay, India

Internship

Pediatrics - Seth G.S. Medical College, Bombay, India

Residency

Pediatrics - Seth G.S. Medical College, Bombay, India
Cardiology - Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London, England
Pediatrics -Schneider Children's Hospital, New Hyde Park, NY

Fellowship

Cardiology - Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, England
Pediatric Cardiology - The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY
Cardiac Intensive Care and Thoracic Organ Transplantation - The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA

Board Certification

Pediatric Cardiology
Pediatrics

Titles and Academic Titles

Attending Cardiologist

Staff Cardiologist, Cardiac Intensive Care Unit

Medical Director, Cardiology Consult Service

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

Departments and Services

Research Interests

Assessment of cardiac output after surgery for congenital heart disease
Mechanical circulatory support in children (ECMO and VAD)
Nutrition in children with heart defects
Evaluation of risk factors for heart transplantation in the current era

Publications

Papers

2021

Bearl DW, Cantor R, Koehl D, Gossett JG, Bock MJ, Halnon N, Glass L, Exil V, Musselwhite C, Kirklin JK, Godown J, Ravishankar C. : Fontan-associated plastic bronchitis waitlist and heart transplant outcomes: A PHTS analysis (In press). Pediatr Transplant 2021.

Favilla E, Faerber JA, Hampton LE, Tam V, DeCost G, Ravishankar C, Gaynor JW, Burnham A, Licht DJ, Mercer-Rosa L.: Early Evaluation and the Effect of Socioeconomic Factors on Neurodevelopment in Infants with Tetralogy of Fallot (In press). Pediatr Cardiol 2021.

O'Byrne ML, Song L, Huang J, Goldberg DJ, Gardner MM, Ravishankar C, Rome JJ, Glatz AC: Trends in Discharge Prescription of Digoxin After Norwood Operation: An Analysis of Data from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) Database (In press). Pediatr Cardiol 2021.

2020

Ghosh RM, Griffis HM, Glatz AC, Rome JJ, Smith CL, Gillespie MJ, Whitehead KK, O'Byrne ML, Biko DM, Ravishankar C, Dewitt AG, Dori Y.: Prevalence and Cause of Early Fontan Complications: Does the Lymphatic Circulation Play a Role? J Am Heart Assoc  9(7): e015318.  April 2020.

Lambert LM, McCrindle B, Pemberton VL, Hollenbeck-Pringle D, Atz AM, Ravishankar C, Campbell JM, Dunbar-Masterson C, Uzark K, Rolland M, Trachtenberg FL, Menon SC, For the Pediatric Heart Network Investigators: Longitudinal Study of Anthropometry in Fontan Survivors: PHN Fontan Study  Am Heart J 224: 192-200, April 2020.

Edelson JB, Ravishankar C, Griffis H, Zhang X, Faerber J, Gardner MM, Naim MY, Macsio CE, Glatz AC, Goldberg DJ. : A Comparison of Bidirectional Glenn vs. Hemi-Fontan Procedure: An Analysis of the Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial Public Use Dataset ( In Press). Pediatr Cardiol  May 2020.

Edelson JB, Rossano J, Griffis H, Quarshie W, Ravishankar c, O'Connor M, Mascio CE, Mercer-Rosa L, Glatz AC, and Lin KY.: Resource Use and Outcomes of Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease Admissions: 2003-2016 (Accepted for publication). JAHA June 2020.

Natarajan SS, Stagg A, Taylor AM, Griffis HM, Bosler CK, Cates M, Dewitt AG, Giglia TM, Mascio CE, Ravishankar C, Rossano JW, Taylor LC, Ware EP, Nicolson SC, Rome JJ. : Standardization of the Perioperative Management for Neonates Undergoing the Norwood Operation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome and Related Heart Defects (In Press in Pediatr Crit Care Med).  Pediatr Crit Care Med July 2020.

Medoff Cooper B, Marino, Fleck DA, Lisanti AJ, Golfenshtein N, Ravishankar C, Costello JM, Huang L, Hanlon AL, Curley MAQ.: Telehealth home monitoring and post-cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease:REACH  Pediatrics 146: e20200531, Sept 2020.

Pinto E, Dori Y, Smith C, DeWitt A, Williams C, Griffis H, Escobar H, Biko D, Krishnamurthy G, Rome JJ, Glatz A, Liu M, Ravishankar C, Zhang H, Taha D. : Neonatal Lymphatic Flow Disorders: Impact of Lymphatic Imaging and Interventions on Outcomes  Journal of Perinatology 10(1038), Sept 2020.

Hunt ML, Ittenbach RF, Kaplinski M, Ravishankar C, Rychik R, Steven JM, Fuller SM, Nicolson SC, Spray TL, J. William Gaynor JW, Mascio CE: Outcomes for the Superior Cavo-Pulmonary Connection in Children with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A 30-Year Experience  Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 58(4): 809-816, Oct 2020.

Kaplinski M, Ittenbach RF, Hunt ML, Stephan D, Natarajan SS, Ravishankar C, Giglia TM, Rychik J, Rome JJ, Mahle M, Kennedy AT, Steven JM, Fuller SM, Nicolson SC, Spray TL, Gaynor JW, Mascio CE.: Decreasing Interstage Mortality After the Norwood Procedure: A 30-Year Experience.  JAHA 9(19): e016889, Oct 2020.

Lisanti AJ, Savoca M, Gaynor JW, Mascarenhas MR, Ravishankar C, Sullivan E, Pieciak K, Costarino A, Chen J, Kennedy A, Olsen R, Min J, Mondal A, Huang J, Irving SY.: Standardized Feeding Approach Mitigates Weight Loss in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease (In press). J Pediatr.  2020.

2019

Achuff BJ, Elias MD, Ittenbach RF, Ravishankar C, Nicolson SC, Spray TL, Fuller S, Gaynor JW, O'Connor MJ.: Risk factors for mortality in paediatric cardiac ICU patients managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Cardiol Young 29: 40-47, Jan 2019.

Bates KE, Glatz AC, Giglia TE,Natarajan SN,Ravishankar C,Stagg A,Rome JJ. : Evaluating the Utility of Routine Screening Catheterization Before Interstage Discharge of Infants with Single Ventricle Physiology. Cardiol Young 29: 660-666. May 2019.

Biko, DM, Reisen, Otero, HJ, Ravishankar, C, Victoria, T, Glatz, AC, Rome, JJ, Dori Y.: Imaging of central lymphatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome  Pediatr Radiol 49(5): 586-592, May 2019.

Gardner MM, Mercer-Rosa L, Faerber J, DiLorenzo MP, Bates KE, Stagg A, Natarajan SS, Szwast A, Fuller F, Mascio CE, Fleck D, Torowicz DL, Giglia TM, Rome JJ, Ravishankar C.: Association of a Home Monitoring Program with Interstage and Stage 2 Outcomes  J Am Heart Assoc 8(10): e010783, May 2019.

Butto A, Mercer-Rosa L, Teng C, Daymont C, Edelson J, Faerber J, Mejia E, Ravishankar C, Cohen MS.: Longitudinal growth in patients with single ventricle cardiac disease receiving tube-assisted feeds. Congenit Heart Dis  14(6): 1058-1065, Nov 2019.

Butto A, Mercer-Rosa L, Teng C, Daymont C, Edelson JB, Mejia EJ, Ravishankar C, Cohen MS.: Longitudinal Growth in Patients with Single Ventricle Cardiac Disease Receiving Tube-Assisted Feeds.  Congenital Heart Disease 14(6): 1058-1065, Nov 2019.

Eckhauser A, Van Rompay MT, Ravishankar C, Newburger J, Subramanyan SR, Pizarro C, Ghanayem N, Trachtenberg F, Burns K, Hill G, Atz A, Hamstra M, Mazwi M, Park P, Richmond M, Wolfe M, Zampi JD, Jacobs J, Minich L.: Variation in Care for Children Undergoing the Fontan Operation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Cardiol Young 29(12): 1510-1516, Dec 2019.

2018

Mejia EJ, O'Connor MJ, Lin KY, Dong L, Griffis H, Mascio CE, Shamszad P, Donoghue A, Ravishankar C, Shaddy RE, Rossano JW: Characteristics and Outcomes of Pediatric Heart Failure Related Emergency Department Visits in the United States: A Population-Based Study.  J Pediatr 193: 114-118. February 2018.

Butto,A; Rossano, JW; Nandi, D; Ravishankar, C; Lin, KY; O'Connor, MJ; Shaddy, RE; Shamszad, P.: Elevated  Troponin in the First 72 Hours of Hospitalization for Pediatric Viral Myocarditis is Associated with Death and ECMO: an Analysis of the PHIS+ Database  Pediatr Card 10: 1871-2, April 2018.

O'Connor MJ, Miller K, Shaddy RE, Lin KY, Hanna BD, Ravishankar C, Rossano JW.: Disopyramide use in infants and children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.  Cardiol Young 28(4): 530-535. April 2018.

O'Connor MJ,*, Glatz AC, Rossano JW, Shaddy RE, Ryan R, Ravishankar C, Fuller S, Mascio CE, Gaynor JW, Lin KY.: Cumulative Effect of Preoperative Risk Factors on Mortality after Pediatric Heart Transplantation  Ann Thorac Surg S0003-4975 (18): 30538, April 2018.

Mercer-Rosa L, Elci Ou, DeCost G, Ravishankar C, Mascio CE, Kawut SM, Goldmuntz E: Predictors of Length of Hospital Stay after Complete Repair for Tetralogy of Fallot: A prospective Cohort Study. J Am Heart Assoc 7 (11): 1-13, May 2018.

Fleck, DF, Marino BS, Costello JM, Ravishankar C, Torowicz D, Alden C, Van't Hof K, Medoff-Cooper B.: The REACH Protocol: An Innovative strategy for Home Management of Infants with Complex Congenital Heart Disease  Cardiol Young 28(7): 961-967, July 2018.

Eckhauser A, Pasquali SK, Ravishankar C, Lambert LM, Newburger JW, Altz, AM, Ghanayem N, Schwartz SM, Zhang C, Jacobs JP, Minich LL: Variation in Care for Infants Undergoing the Stage II Palliation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome  Cardiol Young 28: 1109-1115, October 2018.

Edelson JD, MD, Rossano JW, MD MS, Griffis H, PhD, Dai D, PhD, Faerber J, PhD, Ravishankar C, MD, Mascio CE, MD, Mercer-Rosa LM, MD MSCE, Glatz AC, MD MSCE, Lin, KY, MD: Characteristics and Outcomes of Emergency Department Visits among Children with Congenital Heart Disease: 2006- 2014. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol 72: 1817-1825, October 2018.

2017

Burch PT, Ravishankar C, Newburger JW, Lambert LM, Pemberton VL, Granger S, Floh AA, Anderson JB, Garick D, Hill KD, Oster ME, Lewis AB, Schumacher KR, Zyblewiski SC, Davies RR, Jacobs JP, Lai WW, Minich LL: Longitudinal assessment of growth six years after the Norwood operation: Results from the single ventricle reconstruction trial. J. Pediatr  180: 270-274, January 2017.

Zak V, Hsu DP, Pemberton VL, Levine JC, Atz AM, Cnota JF, Ravishankar C, Barker P, Lambert LM, McCrindle BW, Frommelt MA, Altmann K, Chen S, Williams RV: Pediatric Heart Network Investigators: Translating clinical trials into clinical practice: A survey assessing the potential impact of the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Trial.  Cardiol Young 10: 1-6, February 2017.

Elias MD, Glatz AC, O'Connor MJ, Schatner S, Ravishankar C, Mascio CE, Cohen MS.: Prevalence and risk factors for pericardial effusion requiring readmission after pediatric cardiac surgery.  Pediatr Card  38(3): 484-494, March 2017.

Allen KY, Downing TE, Glatz AC, Rogers LS, Ravishankar C, Rychik J, Fuller S, Montenego LMS, Steven JM, Spray TL, Nicolson SC, Gaynor JW, Goldberg DJ.: Effect of Fontan Associated Morbidities on Survival with Intact Fontan Circulation. Am J Cardiol 119 (11): 1866-1871, June 2017.

Wittlieb-Weber CA, Rossano JW, Weber DR, Lin KY, Ravishankar C, Mascio CE, Shaddy RE, O'Connor MJ.: Emergency Department Utilization In Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients. Pediatr Transplant 21 (4), June 2017.

Downing TE, Allen KY, Glatz AC, Rogers LS, Ravishankar C, Rychik J, Fuller S, Montenegro LM, Steven JM, Spray TL, Nicolson SC, Gaynor JW, Goldberg DJ: Long-Term Mortality after the Fontan Operation: 20 Years of Experience at a Single Center. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  154 (1): 243-253. July 2017.

Elias MD, Achuff B, Ittenbach RF, Ravishankar C, Spray TL, Fuller S, Montenegro LM, Gaynor JW, O'Connor MJ: Long-term Outcomes of Pediatric Cardiac Patients supported by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. Pediatr Crit Crit Care  18(8): 787-794, August 2017.

Downing TE, Allen KY, Goldberg, DJ, Rogers LD, Ravishankar C, Rychik J, Fuller S, Montenegro LM, Steven JM, Gillespie MJ, Rome JJ, Spray TL, Nicolson SC, Gaynor JW, Glatz AC: Surgical and Catheter Based Reinterventions are Common in Long-Term Survivors of the Fontan Operation. Cir Cardiovasc Interv 10(9): e004924, September 2017.

2016

Miller TA, Zak V, Shrader P, Ravishankar C, Pemberton VL, Newburger JW, Shillingford AJ, Dagincourt N, Cnota JF, Lambert LM, Sananes R, Richmond ME, Hsu DT, Miller SG, Zyblewski SC, Williams RV: Pediatric Heart Network Investigators. Growth asymmetry, head circumference and neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants with single ventricles.  J Pediatr 168: 220-225, January 2016.

Medoff-Cooper, B, Irving SY, Hanlon AL, Golfenshtein N, Radcliffe J, Stallings VA, Marino BS, Ravishankar C: The association among feeding mode, growth and developmental outcomes in infants with complex congenital heart disease at 6 and 12 months of age. J Pediatr 169: 154-159, February 2016.

Misfeldt Am, Kirsch RE, Goldberg DJ, Mascio CE, Naim MY, Zhang X, Mott AR, Ravishankar C, Rossano JW: Outcomes of single-ventricle patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pediatr Crit Care Med 17(3): 194-202, March 2016.

Ravishankar C, Gerstenberger E, Sleeper LA, Atz AM, Affolter JT, Bradley TJ, Gaynor JW, Goldstein BH, Henderson HT, Jacobs JP, Lewis AB, Dunbar-Masterson C, Menon SC, Pemberton VL, Petit CJ, Pike NA, Pizarro C, Schumacher KR, Williams IA, Newburger JW: Pediatric Heart Network Investigators. Factors affecting Fontan length of stay: Results from the single ventricle reconstruction trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 151: 669-675, March 2016.

Gaies M, Pasquali S, Donohue J, Dimick J, Limbach S, Burnham N, Ravishankar C, Ohye R, Gaynor JW, Mascio C.: Seminal postoperative complications and mode of death after pediatric cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 102(2): 628-635, August 2016.

Patel JK, Glatz AC, Ghosh RM, Jones SM, Ravishankar C, Mascio C, Cohen MS.: Transesophageal echocardiography in the identification of postoperative intramural ventricular septal defects.  J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 152(3): 688-695, September 2016.

Hanke SP, Joy B,Riddle E, Ravishankar C, Peterson LE, King E, Mangeot C, Brown DW, Schoettker P, Anderson JB, Bates KE: Risk Factors for Unanticipated Readmissions During the Interstage: A Report from the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative.  Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 28(4): 803-814, 2016.

Pasquali SK, Ravishankar C, Romano JC, Kane K, Viers S. Kennedy A, Burnham N, Lowery R, Uzark K, Retzloff L, Rome JJ, Rossano JW, Charpie JR, Spray TL, Gaies MG, Ohye RG, Gaynor JW: Design and initial results of a programme for routine stantardised longitudinal follow-up after congenital heart surgery.  Cardiol Young 26(8): 1590-1596, Dec 2016.

2015

Avitable CM, Leonard MB, Brodsky JL, Whitehead KK, Ravishankar C, Cohen MS, Gaynor JW, Rychik J, Goldberg DJ: Usefulness of Insulin-like Growth Factor I as a Marker of Heart Failure in Children and Young Adults after Fontan Palliation Procedure.  Am J Cardiol  115(6)(816-2-): 816-20, March 2015.

Avitable CM, Mercer-Rosa L, Ravishankar C, Rome JJ, Gaynor JW, Spray TL, Cohen MS: Experience with Biventricular Intervention for Neonates with Mitral Valve Abnormalities in the Setting of Critical Left-Side Heart Obstruction.  Ann Thorac Surg 99: 877-83, March 2015.

Mansfield R, Lin K, Mott A, Zaoutis T, Mohamed Z, Luan X, Kaufman B, Ravishankar C, Gaynor JW, Shaddy RE: The Use of Pediatric Ventricular Assist Devices in Children's Hospitals from 2000 to 1010: Morbidity, Mortality and Hospital Charges.  Pediatr Crit Care Med  16: 522-8, July 2015.

Brunetti MA, Glatz AC, McCardle K, Mott AR, Ravishankar C, Gaynor W: Risk Factors for Unplanned Readmission of Patients to the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 6: 597-603, October 2015.

Patel JK, Glatz AC, Ghosh RM, Jones SM, Natarajan S, Ravishankar C, Mascio CE, Spray TL, Cohen MS: Intramural ventricular septal defect is a distinct clinical entity associated with postoperative morbidity in children after repair of conotruncal anomalies.  Circulation 132: 1387-94, October 2015.

Travulsi JCL, Irving SY, Papas MA, Hollowell C, Ravishankar C, Marino BS, Medoff-Cooper B, Schall JL, Stallings VA: Total Energy Expenditure of Infants with Congenital Heart Disease who Have Undergone Surgical Intervention. Pediatr Cardiol 36: 1670-1679, December 2015.

2014

Burch PT, Gerstenberger E, Ravishankar C, Hehir DA, Davies RR, Colan SD, Sleeper LA, Newburger JW, Clabby ML, Williams IA, Li JS, Uzark K, Cooper DS, Lambert LM, Pemberton VL, Pike NA, Anderson JB, Dunbar-Masterson C, Khaikiin S, Zyblewski SC, Minich L: Longitudinal assessment of growth in hypoplastic left heart syndrome: results of the Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial. J Am Heart Assoc 23:3(3): e000079, June 2014.

Wellen Sl, Glatz AC, Gillespie MJ, Ravishankar C, Cohen MC: Usefulness of transthoracic echocardiography to accurately diagnose recoarctation of the aorta after the Norwood procedure.  Am J Cardiol  114(1): 117-21, June 2014.

Avitable CM, Goldberg DJ, Dodds K, Dori Y, Ravishankar C, Rychik J: A Multifaceted Approach to the Management of Plastic Bronchitis after Cavopulmonary Palliation. Ann Thorac Surg 98(2): 634-40, August 2014.

Murphy MO, Glatz AC, Goldberg DJ, Rogers LS, Ravishankar C, Nicolson SC, Steven JM, Fuller S, Spray TL, Gaynor JW: Management of early Fontan failure: A single-institution experience. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 46(3): 458-64, September 2014.

Gaynor JW, Kim, DS, Arrington CB, Atz AM, Bellinger DC, Burt AA, Ghanayem NS, Jacobs JP, Lee TM, Lewis AB, Mahle WT, Marino BS, Miller SG, Newburger JW, Pizarro C, Ravishankar C, Santani AB, Wilder NS, Jarvik, GP, Mital S, Russel MW: Validation of Association of the Apolipoprotein E e2 Allele with Neurodevelopmental Dysfunction after Cardiac Surgery in Neonates and Infants.  J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  148(6): 2560-6, December 2014.

2013

Ravishankar C, Zak V, Williams IA, Bellinger DC, Gaynor JW, Ghanayem NS, Krawczeski CD, Licht DJ, Mahony L, Newburger JW, Pemberton VL, Williams RC, Sananes R, Cook AL, Atz T, Khaikin S, Hsu DT: Association of Impaired Linear Growth and Worse Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Infants with Single Ventricle Physiology: A Report from the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Trial.  J Pediatr 162: 250-256, February 2013.

Almond CS, Morales DL, Blackstone EH, Turrentine M, Imamura M, Massicotte P, Jordan Devaney E, Ravishankar C, Kanter KR, Holman WL, Kroslowitz R, Tjossem C, Thuita L, Cohen G, Buchholz H, St Louis JD, Nguyen K, Niebler RA, Walters H 3rd, Reemsten B, Wearden P, Reinhartz O, Guleserian KJ, Mitchell MB, Bleiweis MS, Canter C, Humpl T: The Berlin Heart EXCOR(R) Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device for Bridge to Heart Transplantation in US Children. Circulation 127: 1702-11, April 2013.

Schwartz MS, Wellen S, Rome JJ, Ravishankar C, Natarajan S: Chest pain with elevated troponin assay in healthy adolescents.  Cardiol Young 23: 353-60, June 2013.

Irving SY, Medoff-Cooper B, Stouffer NO, Schall JI, Ravishankar C, Compher CW, Marino BS, Stallings VA: Resting Energy Expenditure at 3 Months of Age Following Neonatal Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease.  Congenit Heart Dis  8: 343-51, July 2013.

Di Maria MV, Glatz AC, Ravishankar C, Quartermain MD, Rush CH, Nance M, William Gaynor J, Goldberg DJ: Supplemental Tube Feeding Does Not Mitigate Weight Loss in Infants with Shunt-Dependent Single-Ventricle Physiology.  Pediatr Cardiol 34: 1350-1356, August 2013.

2012

Newburger JW, Sleeper LA, Bellinger DC, Goldberg CS, Tabbutt S, Lu M, Mussatto KA,Williams IA, Gustafson KE, Mital S, Pike N, Sood E, Mahle WT, Cooper DS, DunbarMasterson C, Krawszeski CD, Lewis A, Menon SC, Pemberton VL, Ravishankar C, Atz TW,Ohye RG, Gaynor JW: Early Developmental Outcome in Children with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome and Related Anomalies:  The Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial.  Circulation 125: 2081-2091, May 2012.

Pike NA, Pemberton V, Allen K, Jacobs JP, Hsu DT, Lewis AB, Ghanayem N, Lambert L, Crawford K, Atz T, Korsin R, Xu M, Ravishankar C, Cnota J, Pearson GD: Challenges and successes of recruitment in the "angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in infants with single ventricle trial" of the Pediatric Heart Network. Cardiol Young 5: 1-10, July 2012.

Tweddell JS, Sleeper LA, Ohye RG, Williams IA, Mahony L, Pizarro C, Pemberton VL,Frommelt PC, Bradley SM, Cnota J, Hirsch J, Kirshbom P, Li JS, Pike N, Puchalski M, Ravishankar C, Jacobs JP, Laussen PC, McCrindle B: Intermediate-Term Mortality and Cardiac Transplantation in Infants with Single-Ventricle Lesions: Risk Factors and Their Interaction with Shunt Type. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  144: 152-9, July 2012.

Rogers LS, Glatz AC, Ravishankar C, Spray TL, Nicolson SC, Rychik J, Rush CH, Gaynor JW, Goldberg DJ: 18 years of the fontan operation at a single institution: results from 771 consecutive patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 60: 1018-25, September 2012.

Kaczorowski DJ, Sathanandam S, Ravishankar C, Gillespie MJ, Montenegro LM, Gruber PJ, Spray TL, Gaynor JW, Lin KY: Coronary Ostioplasty for Congenital Atresia of the Left Main Coronary Artery Ostium. Ann Thorac Surg 94: 1307-10, October 2012.

Ohye RG, Schonbeck JV, Eghtesady P, Laussen PC, Pizarro C, Shrader P, Frank DU, Graham EM, Hill KD, Jacobs JP, Kanter KR, Kirsh JA, Lambert LM, Lewis AB, Ravishankar C, Tweddell JS, Williams IA, Pearson GD; Pediatric Heart Network Investigators: Cause, timing, and location of death in the Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial.  J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 144: 907-14, October 2012.

Tabbutt S, Ghanayem N, Ravishankar C, Sleeper LA, Cooper DS, Frank DU, Lu M, Pizarro C, Frommelt P, Goldberg CS, Graham EM, Krawczeski CD, Lai WW, Lewis A, Kirsh JA, Mahony L, Ohye RG, Simsic J, Lodge AJ, Spurrier E, Stylianou M, Laussen P; Pediatric Heart Network Investigators: Risk factors for hospital morbidity and mortality after the Norwood procedure: A report from the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 144: 882-95, October 2012.

2011

Hall EK, Glatz AC, Quartermain MD, Ravishankar C, Kaufman B, Cohen MS, Hanna BD, Goldberg DJ, : Brain-type natriuretic peptide correlates with right heart pressures in a cross section of pediatric transplant patients. Pediatr Transplant  15: 70-4, February 2011.

Medoff-Cooper B, Irving SY, Marino BS, Garcia-Espana, JF, Ravishankar C, Bird GL, Stallings VA: Weight Change in Infants with a functionally univentricular heart: from surgical intervention to hospital discharge.  Cardiol Young  21: 136-144, April 2011.

MJ, Ravishankar C, Ballweg JA, Gillespie MJ, Gaynor JW, Tabbutt S, Dominguez TE: Early systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt intervention in neonates with congenital heart disease.  J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg  142: 106-112, July 2011.

Anderson JB, Marino BS, Irving SY, García-España JF, Ravishankar C, Stallings VA,Medoff-Cooper B: Poor post-operative growth in infants with two-ventricle physiology. Cardiol Young  21: 421-429, August 2011.

Williams RV, Zak V, Ravishankar C, Altmann K, Anderson J, Atz AM, Dunbar-Masterson C,Ghanayem N, Lambert L, Lurito K, Medoff-Cooper B, Margossian R, Pemberton VL, Russell J, Stylianou M, Hsu D: Factors Affecting Growth in Infants with Single Ventricle Physiology: A Report from the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Trial.  J Pediatr 159: 1017-22, December 2011.

2010

O'Connor MJ, Menteer JD, Chrisant MRK, Monos D, Lind C, Levine S, Gaynor JW,  Hanna  BD, Paridon SM, Ravishankar C, Kaufman BD: Ventricular assist  device-associated anti-HLA antibody sensitization in pediatric patients bridged to heart transplantation.   J Heart Lung Transplant  29: 109-116, January 2010.

Williams RV, Ravishankar C, Zak V, Evans F, Atz AM, Border WL, Levine J, Li JS, Mahony L, Mital S, Pearson GD, Prakash A, Hsu DT: Birth Weight and Prematurity in infants with single ventricle physiology: pediatric heart network infant single ventricle trial screened population.  Congenit Heart Dis 5: 96-103, March 2010.

Ohye RG, Sleeper LA, Mahoney L, Newburger JW, Pearson GD, Lu M, Goldberg CS, Tabbutt S,Frommelt PC,  Ghanayem NS, Laussen PC, Rhodes JF, Lewis AB, Mital S, Ravishankar C, Williams IA, Dunbar-Masterson C, Ata, AM, Colan S, Minich L, Pizarro C, Kanter KR,Jaggers J, Jacobs JP, Drawczeski CD, Pike N, McCrindle BW, Virzi L, Gaynor JW : Comparison of shunt types in the Norwood procedure for single-ventricle Lesions.  N Engl J Med  362: 1980-1992, May 2010.

Hsu DT, Zak V, Mahony L, Sleeper LA, Atz AM, Levine JC, Piers BC, Ravishankar C,McCrindle BW, Williams RV, Altmann K, Ghanayem NS, Margossian R, Chung WK, Border WL, Pearson GD, Stylianou MP, Mital S: Enalapril in infants with single ventricle: results of a multicenter randomized trial.  Circulation 122: 333-340, July 2010.

Ballweg JA, Dominguez TE, Ravishankar C, Gaynor JW, Nicholson SC, Spray  TL, Tabbutt S : A contemporary comparison of the effect of shunt Type in hypoplastic left heart syndrome on the hemodynamics and outcome at Fontan Completion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 140: 537-544, September 2010.

Ballweg JA, Dominguez TE, Tabbutt S, Gaynor JW, Nicholson SC, Spray  TL, Ravishankar C: Rintervention for arch obstruction following Stage 1 reconstruction does not adversely affect survival or outcome at Fontan completion.  J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 140: 545-549, September 2010.

2009

Hsu DT, Mital S, Ravishankar C, Margossian R, Li JS, Sleeper LA, Williams RV, Levine JC, McCrindle BW, Atz AM, Servedio D, Mahony L. : Rationale and Design of a Trial of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition in Infants with Single Ventricle.  American Heart J 157: 37-45, January 2009.

Schwalbe-Terilli CR, Hartman DH, Nagle ML, Gallagher PR, Ittenbach RF, Burnham NB, Gaynor JW, Ravishankar C.: Enteral feeding and caloric intake in neonates after cardiac Surgery. Am Journal Crit Care  18 (1): 52-57, January 2009.

2008

Hehir DA, Dominguez TE, Ballweg JA, Ravishankar C, Marino BS, Bird GL, Nicolson SC, Spray TL, Gaynor JW, Tabbutt S. Risk factors for interstage death after stage 1 reconstruction of hypoplastic left heart syndrome and variants. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008 Jul;136(1):94-9, 99.e1-3. Epub 2008 May 22.

Dorfman AT, Marino BS, Wernovsky G, Tabbutt S, Ravishankar C, Godinez RI, Priestley M, Dodds KM, Rychik J, Gruber PJ, Gaynor JW, Levy RJ, Nicolson SC,Montenegro LM, Spray TL, Dominguez TE. Critical heart disease in the neonate: presentation and outcome at a tertiary care center. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2008 Mar;9(2):193-202. PMID: 18477933

Kaufman BD, Nagle ML, Levine SR, Vijaynathan N, Hanna BD, Paridon S, Ravishankar C, Chrisant MK. Too fat or too thin? Body habitus assessment in children listed for heart transplant and impact on outcome. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2008 May;27(5):508-13. PMID: 18442716

Schultz AH, Localio AR, Clark BJ, Ravishankar C, Videon N, Kimmel SE. Epidemiologic features of the presentation of critical congenital heart disease: implications for screening. Pediatrics. 2008 Apr;121(4):751-7. PMID: 18381540

2007

Tabbutt S, Ravishankar C. Update on randomized clinical trials impacting clinical care in pediatric cardiac intensive care. Congenit Heart Dis. 2007 Mar;2(2):104-9. PMID: 18377485

Wernovsky G, Kuijpers M, Van Rossem MC, Marino BS, Ravishankar C, Dominguez T, Godinez RI, Dodds KM, Ittenbach RF, Nicolson SC, Bird GL, Gaynor JW, Spray TL, Tabbutt S. Postoperative course in the cardiac intensive care unit following the first stage of Norwood reconstruction. Cardiol Young. 2007 Dec;17(6):652-65. Epub 2007 Nov 7. PMID: 17986364

Ballweg JA, Dominguez TE, Ravishankar C, Kreutzer J, Marino BS, Bird GL, Gruber PJ, Wernovsky G, Gaynor JW, Nicolson SC, Spray TL, Tabbutt S. A contemporary comparison of the effect of shunt type in hypoplastic left heart syndrome on the hemodynamics and outcome at stage 2 reconstruction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007 Aug;134(2):297-303. PMID: 17662765

2006

Davis JA, Ravishankar C, Shah MJ. Multiple cardiac arrhythmias in a previously healthy child: a case of accidental digitalis intoxication? Pediatr Emerg Care. 2006 Jun;22(6):430-4. PMID: 16801845

Gillespie M, Kuijpers M, Van Rossem M, Ravishankar C, Gaynor JW, Spray T,Clark B 3rd. Determinants of intensive care unit length of stay for infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Congenit Heart Dis. 2006 Jul;1(4):152-60. PMID: 18377540

Ravishankar C, Dominguez TE, Kreutzer J, Wernovsky G, Marino BS, Godinez R, Priestley MA, Gruber PJ, Gaynor WJ, Nicolson SC, Spray TL, Tabbutt S. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after stage I reconstruction for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2006 Jul;7(4):319-23. PMID: 16738497

Ravishankar C, Gaynor JW. Mechanical support of the functionally single ventricle. Cardiol Young. 2006 Feb;16 Suppl 1:55-60. Review. No abstract available. PMID: 16401364

2005

R.L., Stern W.B., Minger K.I., Montenegro L.M., Ravishankar C., Rome J.J., Nicolson S.C., Jobes D.R: Evaluation of tissue saturation as a noninvasive measure of mixed venous saturation in children. Pediatr Crit Care Med 6(6): 671-675, Nov 2005.

Tabbutt S, Dominguez TE, Ravishankar C, Marino BS, Gruber PJ, Wernovsky G,Gaynor JW, Nicolson SC, Spray TL : Outcomes after the stage I reconstruction comparing the right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit with the modified Blalock Taussig shunt.  Ann Thorac Surg  80: 1582-1591, November 2005.

2003

Ravishankar C, Nafday S, Green RS, Kamenir SA, Lorber R, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M,Bridges ND, Holzman IR, Gelb BD: A trial of vitamin A therapy to  facilitate ductal closure in premature infants. J Pediatr 143: 644-648, November 2003.

Books

Chapters

2018

20. Tabbutt S, MD, PhD and Ravishankar C, MD: Cardiology and Cardiac Disease (Accepted for publication). Oxford Textbook of Paediatric Critical Care 2018.

Ravishankar C: Nutritional Assessment and Management in Pediatric Heart Failure, in: JL Jefferies, AC Chang, JW Rossano, RE Shaddy, JA Towbin (Eds.), Heart Failure in the Child and Young Adult: From Bench to Bedside. Academic Press, Elsevier Page: 785-789, 2018.

2016

Lasa J, Ravishankar C., Rossano JW: Inpatient Pediatrics. Chapter In: Cardiology,Philadelphia Guide. Cardiology, Philadelphia Guide 2016.

2015

Ravishankar CR: Author for Chapter on "ECMO in Single Ventricle Heart Defects". Co-Author of section on "Mechanical Circulatory Support". Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Handbook. MB Jones, D Klugman, RK Fitzgerald, LM Kohr, JT Berger, JM Costello, R Bronicki (eds.). 2015.

Ravishankar C: Introduction to VAD. Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Handbook. M.B. Joneas, D. Klugman, R.K. Fitzgerald, L.M. Kohr, J.T. Berger, J.M. Costello, R. Bronicki (eds.). 2015.

2014

Ravishankar C: Contributed to Sections on Single Ventricle Heart Failure, Congenital Heart Disease and Perioperative Heart Failure. In: ISHLT Guidelines for the Care of Pediatric Heart Failure: Monograph Series.  Kirk R, Dipochand AI and Rosenthal D, eds. (eds.). 8, April 2014.

2012

Rogers L, Ravishankar C: Conotruncal Abnormalities. Chapter In: Pediatric Practice Cardiology, Chapter 9 Pediatric Practice Cardiology Page: 179, 2012.

2008

Dominguez TE, Ravishankar C, Laufer MK: International and Emerging Infections. Chapter In: Rogers Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care 2008 Rogers Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care  2008.

2005

Ravishankar C., Wernovsky G: Heart Failure in the postoperative patient. In: PediatricHeart  Failure. Shaddy RE and Wernovsky G. eds. New York: Taylor andFrancis, 2005,Chapter 20, 773-800 Pediatric Heart  Failure(20), 773-800, 2005.

 

Posters and Presentations

2020

Bearl DW, Cantor R, Koehl K, Gossett JG, Bock M, Halnon N, Glass L, Exil V, Musselwhite C, Kirklin J, Godown J, Ravishankar C.: Heart Transplant Outcomes in Children with Fontan-Associated Plastic Bronchitis: A Pediatric Heart Transplant Society Analysis (Accepted for oral presentation at the Annual meeting of the ISHLT, not presented due to COVID-19). Oral presentation at the Annual meeting of the ISHLT, not presented due to COVID-19. April 2020.

Berger JH, Jones AL, Mascio CE, Cohen MS, Ravishankar CR.: Four Cases of Pediatric Pericardial Disease. Poster presentation at the 23rd Annual Update on Pediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease, Florida, Feb 2020. Poster presentation at the 23rd Annual Update on Pediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease 2020.

Gardner MM, Faerber J, Preminger T, Avitabile C, Shankar S, Glatz AC, Ravishankar C, Goldberg DJ: Relationship between Brain-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and Serum Growth Factors in Infants with Single Ventricle Heart Disease and Shunt- or Ductal-Dependent Pulmonary Blood Flow (Accepted for presentation at the Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association, Nov 2020. Scientific Sessions of the AHA 2020.

Lawrence KM, Ittenbach RF, Hunt ML, Kaplinski M, Ravishankar C, Rychik J, Steven JM, Fuller SM, Nicolson SC, Gaynor JW, Spray TL Mascio CE : Attrition Between the Superior Cavo-Pulmonary Connection and the Fontan Procedure in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A 30-Year Experience (Accepted for presentation at the Annual meeting of the AATS, not presented due to COVID-19). Presentation at the Annual meeting of the AATS, not presented due to COVID-19. 2020.

O'Byrne1 ML, Song L, Huang J, Goldberg D, Gardner MM, Ravishankar C, Rome JJ, Glatz AC: Trends in discharge prescription of digoxin after Norwood operation: An analysis of data from the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) database (Accepted for virtual presentation) Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association 2020.

Stagg A, : Initial Experience With Telemedicine For Interstage Monitoring In Infants With Palliated Congenital Heart Disease (Accepted for presentation). Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association 2020.

Tomasulo CE, Ravishankar C, Natarajan S, Mascio CE, MD; Glatz AC.: Large aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms of surgically reconstructed right ventricular outflow tracts. Poster presentation at the 23rd Annual Update of Pediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease, Florida, Feb 2020. Poster presentation at the 23rd Annual Update of Pediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease 2020.

2019

Lisanti AJ, Savoca, Irving S, Chen J, Ravishankar C, Mascarenhas M, Sullivan E, Costarino A, Medoff-Cooper B, Min J, CHOP, HUANG J, Gaynor JW: Evaluation Of A Comprehensive Nutrition Pathway For Infants Requiring Neonatal Cardiac Surgery (Poster presentation at the Annual Scientific Session of the AHA, November 16-18 2019). AHA 2019.

Invited Lectures

2021

Ravishankar C. "Single Ventricle Heart Defects: Introduction", CHOP OMinar in Pediatric Cardiology, Open Medical Institute, AAF, Salzburg, Austria, Jan 19, 2021.

Ravishankar C. "Fellows' Case Discussions: Moderator", CHOP OMinar in Pediatric Cardiology, Open Medical Institute, AAF, Salzburg, Austria, 2 seesions on Jan 20,2021.

Ravishankar C. "Fontan Circulation: Short and Long-Term Outcomes", CHOP OMinar in Pediatric Cardiology, Open Medical Institute, AAF, Salzburg, Austria, Jan 21, 2021.

Ravishankar C. "Fellows' Case Discussions", CHOP OMinar in Pediatric Cardiology, Open Medical Institute, AAF, Salzburg, Austria, Moderator for 2 sessions on Jan 21, 2021.

2020

Ravishankar C. Lecture on "The Fragile Infant at Home Following Stage I Norwood Palliation". 23rd Annual Update on Pediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease. Feb 16, 2020

Ravishankar C. Plenary Session on Intense Hallway Discussions: Leader "This Infant is Premature and has Congenital Heart Disease: Operate Now or Wait on Prostaglandin?". 23rd Annual Update on Pediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease. Feb 13, 2020.

Ravishankar C. Moderator for plenary session on "Clinical Problems and Practical Solutions in Everyday Congenital and Pediatric Heart Care: Here is My Approach to..." Feb 16, 2020.

Ravishankar C. Lecture on "ECMO and Mechanical Support in Children with CHD". 23rd Annual Update on Pediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease. Feb 12, 2020.

Ravishankar C. "The Interstage Period", 1st Virtual Symposium on Home Care for children with Complex Congenital Heart Diseases, Proyecto Promesa, Columbia, Nov 13, 2020.

Ravishankar C. "Interstage Monitoring: CHOP Experience", 1st Virtual Symposium on Home Care for children with Complex Congenital Heart Diseases, Proyecto Promesa, Columbia, Nov 14, 2020.

2019

Ravishankar C. Lecture on "ECMO and Mechanical Support in Children with CHD - Cardiology 2019 22nd Annual Update on Pediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease, Huntington Beach, CA. February 13, 2019.

Ravishankar C. Lecture on "Sunrise Session IV: Well, I've Never Seen This Before! Clinical Case Scenarios and Important Lessions Learned" - Cardiology 2019 22nd Annual Update on Pediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease, Huntington Beach, CA. February 15, 2019.

Ravishankar C. Moderated session on "Hypolastic Left Heart Syndrome: 40 Years of Challenges, Opportunities & Solutions - Fetus to Adult, Cardiology 2019 22nd Annual Update on Pediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease, Huntington Beach, CA. February 17, 2019.

Ravishankar C. Lecture on "Feeding Challenges and Growth" - Cardiology 2019 22nd Annual Update on Pediatric and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease, Huntington Beach, CA. February 17, 2019.

Ravishankar C. "Nutritional Support during Postoperative Period of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, The 9th Shanghai Conference on Pediatric Cardiovascular Disease, Shanghai, China. Sept 2019.

Ravishankar C. "Diagnosis and Management of Critical Heart Disease in Neonates". Lecture as part of the UAE Ministry of Health and Prevention Visiting Consultants Program 2019 at Khorfakkan Hospital. Dec 9, 2019.

Ravishankar C. "Diagnosis and Management of Congestive Heart Failure in Children". Lecture as part of the Ministry of Health and Prevention Visiting Consultants Program 2019 at the Al Qassimi Women and Children's Hospital. Dec 10, 2019.

Awards and Honors

2018-2020, Named in Top Doctors for Pediatric Cardiology in Philadelphia Magazine
2016, First "Heart of Gold" Award, Hayden's Heart Charity Award
2014, Alan Cohen Master Clinician Award, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
2014, Core Physician Faculty for Pediatric Residency Program, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
2013, Faculty Teacher of the Year, Selected by House staff of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
2011, US News Top Doctors
2010-2015, Faculty Honor Roll for Teaching, Selected by House Staff of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
2009, The Physician Partnering Award from the Department of Nursing at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
2009-2010, Dean's Award for Excellence in Clinical Teaching at an affiliated Hospital, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
2006, Philadelphia Magazine "Top Doctors"
2006-present, Best Doctors in America

Editorial and Academic Positions

Editorial Positions

2018-present, Review of manuscripts for JAHA
2016-present, Review of manuscripts for Italian Journal of Pediatrics.
2016-present, Review of manuscripts for Critical Care Nursing
2014-present, Review of manuscripts for European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
2013-present, Review of manuscripts for Circulation
2011-present, Review of manuscripts for Journal of American College of Cardiology
2011-present, Review of manuscripts for World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery
2011-present, Review of manuscripts for Artificial Organs
2011-present, Review of manuscripts for Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
2011-present, Review of manuscripts for Cardiology in the Young
2007-present, Review of manuscripts for International Journal of Artificial Organs
2007-present, Review of manuscripts for Journal of Pediatrics
2007-present, Review of manuscripts for Congenital Heart Disease

Academic and Institutional Committees

2018-present, Scientific Review Committee of PAC3
2017-present, Department of Pediatrics Executive Committee
2017-present, Co Chair, QI project on "Management of pleural effusions after the Fontan operation"
2016-present, Cardiac Center Strategic Plan, Planning Committee member
2015-present, Committee on the quality improvement project on "Inpatient care of neonatal single ventricle patients"
2014-present, Pathway on "Nutrition for Neonates Undergoing Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease"
2014-present, Chair, Program Evaluation Committee
2014-present, Clinical Competency Committee for Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Program
2009-present, QI project on "Improvement of Nutrition in cardiac patients"
2008-present, Cardiac Quality Improvement for the Cardiac Care Unit

Leadership and Memberships

Memberships in Professional Organizations

International

2003-present, The International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation

National

2019-present, Pediatric Heart Transplant Society (PHTS)
 - 2019-present, Scientific Review Committee
2003-present, The American Heart Association