Steven M. Willi, MD
Locations: Main Hospital
Appointments and Referrals: 1-800-TRY-CHOP (1-800-879-2467)
Skip to content
Appointments and Referrals: 1-800-TRY-CHOP (1-800-879-2467)
Steven Willi, MD, is the medical director of the Diabetes Center for Children at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Dr. Willi is interested in therapeutics for type 1 and type 2 diabetes and has performed a number of physiologic studies in the etiology and characterization of diabetes in children. Current studies include three trials on the delay of progression of type 1 diabetes and a multicenter trial to examine the optimal therapeutics for type 2 diabetes in children.
MD - Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
Pediatrics - The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA
Endocrinology/Diabetes - The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA
Research Fellow in Endocrinology/Diabetes - The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA
Pediatric Endocrinology – American Board of PediatricsPediatrics – American Board of Pediatrics
Director, Diabetes Center for Children
Professor of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Li G, Zhong L, Han L, Wang Y, Li B, Wang D, Zhao Y, Li Y, Zhang Q, Qi L, Speakman JR, Willi SM, Li M, Gao S.: Genetic variations in adiponectin levels and dietary patterns on metabolic health among children with normal weight versus obesity: the BCAMS study. Int J Obes (Lond) 46(2): 325-332, Feb 2022.
Van Name MA, Kanapka LG, DiMeglio LA, Miller KM, Albanese-O'Neill A, Commissariat P, Corathers SD, Harrington KR, Hilliard ME, Anderson BJ, Kelley JC, Laffel LM, MacLeish SA, Nathan BM, Tamborlane WV, Wadwa RP, Willi SM, Williams KM, Wintergerst KA, Woerner S, Wong JC, DeSalvo DJ.: Long-term Continuous Glucose Monitor Use in Very Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes: One-Year Results From the SENCE Study. J Diabetes Sci Technol Mar 2022.
Shah AS, Gidding SS, El Ghormli L, Tryggestad JB, Nadeau KJ, Bacha F, Levitt Katz LE, Willi SM, Lima J, Urbina EM; TODAY Study Group.: Relationship between Arterial Stiffness and Subsequent Cardiac Structure and Function in Young Adults with Youth-Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the TODAY Study. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 35(6): 620-628, June 2022.
Lai CW, Lipman TH, Willi SM, Hawkes CP.: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Rates of Continuous Glucose Monitor Initiation and Continued Use in Children With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 44(1): 255-257, January 2021 Notes: doi: 10.2337/dc20-1663. Epub 2020 Nov 11.
Miller V, Xiao R, Willi S.: Correlates of CGM Use Trajectories in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther February 2021 Notes: doi: 10.1089/dia.2020.0668. Online ahead of print.
Strategies to Enhance New CGM Use in Early Childhood (SENCE) Study Group. [Willi SM - Writing Group Member]: A Randomized Clinical Trial Assessing Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) Use With Standardized Education With or Without a Family Behavioral Intervention Compared With Fingerstick Blood Glucose Monitoring in Very Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 44(2): 464-472, February 2021 Notes: doi: 10.2337/dc20-1060. Epub 2020 Dec 17.
Lagarde WH, Courtney KL, Reiner B, Steinmann K, Tsalikian E, Willi SM.: Human plasma-derived alpha1 -proteinase inhibitor in patients with new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study. Pediatr Diabetes 22(2): 192-201, March 2021 Notes: doi: 10.1111/pedi.13162. Epub 2020 Dec 13.
Lipman TH, Smith JA, Patil O, Willi SM, Hawkes CP.: Racial disparities in treatment and outcomes of children with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes 22(2): 241-248, March 2021 Notes: doi: 10.1111/pedi.13139. Epub 2020 Oct 25.
Hawkes CP, Willi SM.: A trend towards an early increase in ketoacidosis at presentation of paediatric type 1 diabetes during the coronavirus-2019 pandemic. Diabet Med 38(4): e14461, April 2021 Notes: doi: 10.1111/dme.14461. Epub 2020 Dec 1.
Gitelman SE, Bundy BN, Ferrannini E, Lim N, Blanchfield JL, DiMeglio LA, Felner EI, Gaglia JL, Gottlieb PA, Long SA, Mari A, Mirmira RG, Raskin P, Sanda S, Tsalikian E, Wentworth JM, Willi SM, Krischer JP, Bluestone JA; Gleevec Trial Study Group.: Imatinib therapy for patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol Page: 00139-X, June 2021 Notes: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00139-X.
Lai CW, Lipman T, Willi SM, Hawkes CP.: Early racial/ethnic disparities in continuous glucose monitor use in pediatric type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther June 2021 Notes: doi: 10.1089/dia.2021.0120. Online ahead of print. 101. Fremont ER, Slick N, Willi SM, Miller VA.: "I Think Parents Shouldn't Be Too Pushy": A Qualitative Exploration of Parent and Youth Perspectives of Youth Decision-Making Involvement in Starting Continuous Glucose Monitoring. Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care 47(5): 355-366, Oct 2021 Notes: doi: 10.1177/26350106211040424.
Fremont ER, Slick N, Willi SM, Miller VA.: "I Think Parents Shouldn't Be Too Pushy": A Qualitative Exploration of Parent and Youth Perspectives of Youth Decision-Making Involvement in Starting Continuous Glucose Monitoring. Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care 47(5): 355-366, Oct 2021 Notes: doi: 10.1177/26350106211040424. Epub 2021 Aug 27.
Greenbaum CJ, Serti E, Lambert K, Weiner LJ, Kanaparthi S, Lord S, Gitelman SE, Wilson DM, Gaglia JL, Griffin KJ, Russell WE, Raskin P, Moran A, Willi SM, Tsalikian E, DiMeglio LA, Herold KC, Moore WV, Goland R, Harris M, Craig ME, Schatz DA, Baidal DA, Rodriguez H, Utzschneider KM, Nel HJ, Soppe CL, Boyle KD, Cerosaletti K, Keyes-Elstein L, Long SA, Thomas R, McNamara JG, Buckner JH, Sanda S; ITN058AI EXTEND Study Team.: IL-6 receptor blockade does not slow β cell loss in new-onset type 1 diabetes. JCI Insight 6: e150074, Nov 2021.
Wu Y, Zhong L, Li G, Han L, Fu J, Li Y, Li L, Zhang Q, Guo Y, Xiao X, Qi L, Li M, Gao S, Willi SM.: Puberty Status Modifies the Effects of Genetic Variants, Lifestyle Factors and Their Interactions on Adiponectin: The BCAMS Study. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 12: 737459, Dec 2021.
DiMeglio LA, Kanapka LG, DeSalvo DJ, Anderson BJ, Harrington KR, Hilliard ME, Laffel LM, Tamborlane WV, Van Name MA, Wadwa RP, Willi SM, Woerner S, Wong JC, Miller KM; SENCE Study Group.: Time spent outside of target glucose range for young children with type 1 diabetes: a continuous glucose monitor study Diabet Med. February 2020 Notes: [published online ahead of print, 2020 Feb 24]. 2020;10.1111/dme.14276. doi:10.1111/dme.14276.
Li Y, Feng D, Esangbedo IC, Zhao Y, Han L, Zhu Y, Fu J, Li G, Wang D, Wang Y, Li M, Gao S, Willi SM.: Insulin resistance, beta-cell function, adipokine profiles and cardiometabolic risk factors among Chinese youth with isolated impaired fasting glucose versus impaired glucose tolerance: the BCAMS study. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 8(1): e000724, February 2020 Notes: doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000724.2020 Feb; 8(1). pii: e000724.
Phelan H, Foster NC, Schwandt A, Couper JJ, Willi S, Kroschwald P, Jones TW, Wu M, Steigleder-Schweiger C, Craig ME, Maahs DM, Prinz N; Australasian Diabetes Data Network (ADDN) Study Group, the T1D Exchange Clinic Network (T1DX) and the Prospective Diabetes Follow-up Registry (DPV) initiative.: Longitudinal trajectories of BMI z-score: an international comparison of 11,513 Australian, American and German/Austrian/Luxembourgian youth with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Obesity 15(2): e12582, February 2020 Notes: doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12582.
Kaar JL, Schmiege SJ, Drews K, Higgins J, Walders-Abramson N, Isganaitis E, Willi SM, Marcus MD, Zeitler PS, Kelsey MM.: Evaluation of the longitudinal change in health behavior profiles across treatment groups in the TODAY clinical trial. Pediatr Diabetes 21(2): 224-232, March 2020.
Li G, Li Y, Han L, Wang D, Zhang Q, Xiao X, Qi L, Willi SM, Li M, Mi J, Gao S.: Interaction between early environment and genetic predisposition instigates the metabolically obese, normal weight phenotype in children: findings from the BCAMS study. Eur J Endocrinol. Bioscientifica, 182(4): 393-403, April 2020 Notes: doi: 10.1530/EJE-19-0755.
Arslanian S, El Ghormli L, Haymond MH, Chan CL, Chernausek SD, Gandica RG, Gubitosi-Klug R, Levitsky LL, Siska M, Willi SM; TODAY Study Group.: Beta Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Youth with MODY Mutations versus Type 2 Diabetes in TODAY: Longitudinal Observations and Glycemic Failure. Pediatr Diabetes 21(4): 575-585, June 2020 Notes: doi: 10.1111/pedi.12998.Feb 16, 2020.[Epub ahead of print]
Laffel LM, Kanapka LG, Beck RW, Bergamo K, Clements MA, Criego A, DeSalvo DJ, Goland R, Hood K, Liljenquist D, Messer LH, Monzavi R, Mouse TJ, Prahalad P, Sherr J, Simmons JH, Wadwa RP, Weinstock RS, Willi SM, Miller KM: Effect of Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Glycemic Control in Adolescents and Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 323(23): 2388-2396, June 2020
Agarwal S, Kanapka LG, Raymond JK, Walker A, Gerard-Gonzalez A, Kruger D, Redondo MJ, Rickels MR, Shah VN, Butler A, Gonzalez J, Verdejo AS, Gal RL, Willi S, Long JA.: Racial-Ethnic Inequity in Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 105(8): e2960-9, August 2020.
DiMeglio LA, Kanapka LG, DeSalvo DJ, Anderson BJ, Harrington KR, Hilliard ME, Laffel LM, Tamborlane WV, Van Name MA, Wadwa RP, Willi SM, Woerner S, Wong JC, Miller KM; SENCE Study Group.: Time spent outside of target glucose range for young children with type 1 diabetes: a continuous glucose monitor study. Diabet Med 37(8): 1308-1315, August 2020 Notes: doi: 10.1111/dme.14276. Epub 2020 Mar 17.
Miller VA, Xiao R, Slick N, Feudtner C, Willi SM.: Youth Involvement in the Decision to Start CGM Predicts Subsequent CGM Use. Diabetes Care 43(10): 2355-2361, October 2020.
Lipman TH, Willi SM, Lai CW, Smith JA, Patil O, Hawkes CP.: Insulin Pump Use in Children with Type 1 Diabetes: Over a Decade of Disparities. J Pediatr Nurs 55: 110-115, November 2020 Notes: doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2020.08.007. Epub 2020 Sep 1.
Wu Y, Yu X, Li Y, Li G, Cheng H, Xiao X, Mi J, Gao S, Willi SM, Li M.: Adipose Tissue Mediates Associations of Birth Weight with Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Children. Obesity (Silver Spring) 27(5): 746-755, May 2019.
Hawkes Colin P, Willi Steven M, Murphy Kathryn M: A structured 1-year education program for children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes improves early glycemic control. Pediatr Diabetes 20(4): 460-467, June 2019.
Gettings JM, Willi SM, Forth E, Hawkes CP.: Integrating the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression screening tool into the paediatric diabetes clinic. Diabet Med Page: doi: 10.1111, September 2019 Notes: Epub ahead of print.
Fu J, Han L, Zhao Y, Li G, Zhu Y, Li Y, Li M, Gao S, Willi SM.: Vitamin D levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in adolescents and young adults: The BCAMS study. Clinical Nutrition 38(5): 2161-2167, October 2019.
McGill JB, Wu M, Pop-Busui R, Mizokami-Stout K, Tamborlane WV, Aleppo G, Gubitosi-Klug RA, Haller MJ, Willi SM, Foster NC, Zimmerman C, Libman I, Polsky S, Rickels MR.: Biologic and social factors predict incident kidney disease in type 1 diabetes: Results from the T1D exchange clinic network. J Diabetes Complications 33(10): doi: 10.1016, October 2019.
Weber David R, Gordon Rebecca J, Kelley Jennifer C, Leonard Mary B, Willi Steven M, Hatch-Stein Jacquelyn, Kelly Andrea, Kosacci Oksana, Kucheruk Olena, Kaafarani Mirna, Zemel Babette S: Poor glycemic control is associated with impaired bone accrual in the year following a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 104(10): 4511-4520, October 2019.
Gettings JM, Willi SM, Forth E, Hawkes CP.: Integrating the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression screening tool into the paediatric diabetes clinic. Diabet Med. 36(12): 1718-1719, December 2019 Notes: doi: 10.1111/dme.14146. Epub 2019 Oct 4.
Bjornstad P, Nehus E, El Ghormli L, Bacha F, Libman IM, McKay S, Willi SM, Laffel L, Arslanian S, Nadeau KJ; TODAY Study Group.: Insulin Sensitivity and Diabetic Kidney Disease in Children and Adolescents With Type 2 Diabetes: An Observational Analysis of Data From the TODAY Clinical Trial. Am J Kidney Dis. 71(1): 65-74, January 2018
Riddlesworth TD, Beck RW, Gal RL, Connor CG, Bergenstal RM, Lee S, Willi SM.: Optimal Sampling Duration for Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Determine Long-Term Glycemic Control. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 20(4): 314-316, April 2018.
Li G, Esangbedo IC, Xu L, Fu J, Li L, Feng D, Han L, Xiao X, Li M, Mi J, Li M, Gao S, Willi SM.: Childhood retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels predicting the 10-year risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: the BCAMS study. Cardiovascular Diabetology. Springer Nature, 17(1): 69, May 2018.
Ge Li, Issy C Esangbedo, Lu Xu, Junling Fu, Lujiao Li, Dan Feng, Lanwen Han, Xinhua Xiao, Mingyao Li, Jie Mi, Shan Gao, Ming Li, Steven M Willi: Evaluation of ADA HbA1c Criteria in the Diagnosis of Pre-diabetes and Diabetes in a Population of Chinese Adolescents and Young Adults at High Risk for Diabetes: a Cross-sectional Study. BMJ Open 8(8): e020665, August 2018.
Fu J, Li Y, Esangbedo IC, Li G, Feng D, Li L, Xu L, Han L, Li M, Li C, Gao S, Li M, Willi SM: Circulating Osteonectin and Adipokine Profiles in Relation to Metabolically Healthy Obesity in Chinese Children: Findings From BCAMS. J Am Heart Assoc 7(23): e009169, December 2018.
Tamborlane WV, Chang P, Kollman C, Klingensmith GJ, Ruedy K, Gal RL, Van Name M, Bacha F, Willi S, Beck RW; Pediatric Diabetes Consortium.: Eligibility for clinical trials is limited for youth with type 2 diabetes: Insights from the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium T2D Clinic Registry. Pediatr Diabetes 19(8): 1379-1384, December 2018.
Arslanian S, El Ghormli L, Bacha F, Caprio S, Goland R, Haymond MW, Levitsky L, Nadeau KJ, White NH, Willi SM; TODAY Study Group.: Adiponectin, Insulin Sensitivity, β-Cell Function, and Racial/Ethnic Disparity in Treatment Failure Rates in TODAY. Diabetes Care 40: 85-93, January 2017.
Nambam B, Silverstein J, Cheng P, Ruedy KJ, Beck RW, Paul Wadwa R, Klingensmith G, Willi, SM, Wood JR, Bacha F, Thomas IH, Tamborlane WV; Pediatric Diabetes Consortium: A cross-sectional view of the current state of treatment of youth with type 2 diabetes in the USA: enrollment data from the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium Type 2 Diabetes Registry. Pediatr Diabetes 18(33): 222-229, May 2017.
Bergenstal RM, Gal RL, Connor CG, Gubitosi-Klug R, Kruger D, Olson BA, Willi SM, Aleppo G, Weinstock RS, Wood J, Rickels M, DiMeglio LA, Bethin KE, Marcovina S, Tassopoulos A, Lee S, Massaro E, Bzdick S, Ichihara B, Markmann E, McGuigan P, Woerner S, Ecker M, Beck RW; T1D Exchange Racial Differences Study Group.: Racial Differences in the Relationship of Glucose Concentrations and Hemoglobin A1c Levels. Ann Intern Med. 167(2): 95-102, July 2017.
Jaser SS, Foster NC, Nelson BA, Kittelsrud JM, DiMeglio LA, Quinn M, Willi SM, Simmons JH: Sleep in children with type 1 diabetes and their parents the T1D Exchange. Sleep Medicine 39: 108-115, November 2017.
Wong CA, Miller VA, Murphy K, Small D, Ford CA, Willi SM, Feingold J, Morris A, Ha YP, Zhu J, Wang W, Patel MS.: Effect of Financial Incentives on Glucose Monitoring Adherence and Glycemic Control Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr. 171(12): 1176-1183, December 2017
Klingensmith GJ, Pyle L, Nadeau KJ, Barbour LA, Goland RS, Willi SM, Linder B, White NH; TODAY Study Group.: Pregnancy Outcomes in Youth With Type 2 Diabetes: The TODAY Study Experience. Diabetes Care 39(1): 122-129, January 2016.
Gitelman SE, Gottlieb PA, Felner EL, Willi, SM, Fister LK, Moran A, Gottschalk M, Moore WV, Pinckney A, Keyes-Elstein L, Harris KM, Kanaparthi S, Phippard D, Ding L, Bluestone JA, Ehlers MR; ITN START Study Team: Antithymocyte globulin therapy for patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes: 2 year results of a randomized trial. Diabetologia 59(6): 1153-61, June 2016.
Klingensmith GJ, Connor CG, Ruedy KJ, Beck RW, Kollman C, Haro H, Wood JR, Lee JM, Willi SM, Cengiz E, Tamborlane WV; Pediatric Diabetes Consortium: Presentation of youth with type 2 diabetes in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium. Pediatr Diabetes 17(4): 266-73, June 2016.
Jago R, Drews KL, Otvos JD, Willi SM, Buse JB: Novel measures of inflammation and insulin resistance are related to obesity and fitness in a diverse sample of 11-14 year olds: The HEALTHY study. International Journal of Obesity (Lond) 40(7): 1157-63, July 2016.
Isaacs CJ, Brigatti KW, Kucheruk O, Ratcliffe S, Sciascia T, McCormack SE, Willi SM, Lynch DR.: Effects of genetic severity on glucose homeostasis in Friedreich ataxia. Muscle Nerve 54(5): 887-894, November 2016.
Wood JR, Connor CG, Cheng P, Ruedy KJ, Tamborlane WV, Klingensmith G, Schatz D, Gregg B, Cengiz E, Willi SM, Bacha F, Beck RW; Pediatric Diabetes Consortium: Vitamin D status in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) is not worse than in youth without diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes 17(8): 584-591, December 2016.
Willi SM, Miller KM, DiMeglio LA, Klingensmith GJ, Simmons JH, Tamborlane WV, Nadeau KJ, Kittelsrud JM, Huckfeldt P, Beck RW, Lipman TH; T1D Exchange Clinic Network: Racial-ethnic disparities in management and outcomes among children with type 1 diabetes. Pediatrics 135(3): 424-434, March 2015.
Weinstock RS, Trief, PA, El Ghormli L, Goland R< McKay S, Milaszewski K, Preske J, Willi S, Yasuda PM: Parental Characteristics Associated with Outcomes in Youth With Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the TODAY Clinical Trial. Diabetes Care 38(5): 784-792, May 2015.
Rigby MR, Harris KM, Pinckney A, DiMeglio LA, Rendell MS, Felner EI, Dostou JM, Gitelman SE, Griffin KJ, Tsalikian E, Gottlieb PA, Greenbaum CJ, Sherry NA, Moore WV, Monzavi R, Willi SM, Raskin P, Keyes-Elstein L, Long SA, Kanaparthi S, Lim N, Phippard D, Soppe CL, Fitzgibbon ML, McNamara J, Nepom GT, Ehlers MR.: Alefacept provides sustained clinical and immunological effects in new-onset type 1 diabetes patients. J Clin Invest 125(8): 3285-96, August 2015.
Vajravelu ME, Tobolski J, Burrows E, Chilutti M, Xiao R, Bamba V, Willi S, Palladino A, Burnham JM, McCormack SE.: Peak cortisol response to corticotropin-releasing hormone is associated with age and body size in children referred for clinical testing: a retrospective review. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 22: doi: 10.1186, October 2015 Notes: epub only.
Weber DR, Haynes K, Leonard MB, Willi SM, Denburg MR.: Type 1 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of fracture across the life span: a population-based cohort study using The Health Improvement Network (THIN). Diabetes Care. 38(10): 1913-20, October 2015.
Silverstein J, Cheng P, Ruedy KJ, Kollman C, Beck RW, Klingensmith GJ, Wood JR, Willi S, Bacha F, Lee J, Cengiz E, Redondo MJ, Tamborlane WV; Pediatric Diabetes Consortium.: Depressive Symptoms in Youth With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes: Results of the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium Screening Assessment of Depression in Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 38(12): 2341-3, December 2015.
Weber DR, Haynes K, Leonard MB, Willi, SM, Denburg MR: Response to Comment on Weber et al. Type 1 Diabetes is Associated with an Increased Risk of Fracture Across the Life Span: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN)Diabetes Care 2015:38:1913-1920. Diabetes Care 38(12): e205-6, December 2015.
Jago R, Drews KL, Otvos JD, Foster GD, Marcus MD, Buse JB, Mietus-Snyder M, Willi SM; The HEALTHY Study Group: Effect of Relative Weight Group Change on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscop Derived Lipoprotein Particle Size and Concentrations Among Adolescents. J Pediatr 164(5): 1091-1098, May 2014.
Greeley NR, Regner S, Willi S, Lynch DR: Cross-sectional analysis of glucose metabolism in Friedreich ataxia. J Neutrol Sci 15(342): 29-35, July 2014.
Buse JB, Kaufman FR, Linder B, Hirst K, El Ghormli L, Willi S; HEALTHY Study Group: Diabetes screening with hemoglobin a1c versus fasting plasma glucose in a multiethnic middle-school cohort. Diabetes Care 36(2): 429-35, February 2013.
Herold KC, Gitelman SE, Willi SM, Gottlieb PA, Waldron-Lynch F, Devine L, Sherr J, Rosenthal SM, Adi S, Jalaludin MY, Michels AW, Dziura J, Bluestone JA: Teplizumab treatment may improve C-peptide responses in participants with type 1 diabetes after the new-onset period: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia 56(2): 391-400, February 2013.
Rafalson L, Pham TH, Willi SM, Marcus M, Jessup A, Baranowski T: The association between acanthosis nigricans and dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth grade students. Obesity 21(3): E328-E333, March 2013.
Lebastchi J, Deng S, Lebastchi AH, Beshar I, Gitelman S, Willi S, Gottlieb P, Akirav EM, Bluestone JA, Herold KC: Immune Therapy and β-Cell Death in Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes 62(5): 1676-1680, May 2013.Arslanian S, Pyle L, Washington G, Payan M, Bacha F, Caprio S, Haymond MW, Levitsky LL, Goland R, White NH, Willi SM.: Effects of metformin, metformin plus rosiglitazone, and metformin plus lifestyle on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in TODAY. Diabetes Care 36(6): 1749-57, June 2013.
Montgomery KA, Ratcliffe SJ, Baluarte HJ, Murphy KM, Willi S, Lipman TH.: Implementation of a clinical practice guideline for identification of microalbuminuria in the pediatric patient with type 1 diabetes. Nurs Clin North Am 48(2): 343-52, June 2013.
White NH, Pyle L, Willi SM, Pham T, Chernausek SD, Goland R, Berrie N, Hale DE, Haymond MW, Nadeau KJ, Narasimhan S.: Safety and tolerability of the treatment of youth-onset type 2 diabetes: the TODAY experience. Diabetes Care 36(6): 1765-71, June 2013.
Friedman LS, Schadt KA, Regner SR, Mark GE, Lin KY, Sciascia T, St John Sutton M, Willi S, Lynch DR: Elevation of serum cardiac troponin I in a cross-sectional cohort of asymptomatic subjects with Friedreich ataxia. Int J Cardiol. 167(4): 1622-4, August 2013.
Mietus-Snyder M, Drews KL, Otvos JD, Willi SM, Foster GD, Jago R, Buse JB; HEALTHY Study Group: Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol versus Particle Number in Middle School Children. J Pediatr 163: 355-62, August 2013.
Cengiz E, Xing D, Wong JC, Wolfsdorf JI, Haymond MW, Rewers A, Shanmugham S, Tamborlane WV, Willi SM, Seiple DL, Miller KM, DuBose SN, Beck RW; T1D Exchange Clinic Network.: Severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis among youth with type 1 diabetes in the T1D Exchange clinic registry. Pediatr Diabetes 14(6): 447-54, September 2013.
Gitelman SE, Gottlieb PA, Rigby MR, Felner E, Willi SM, Fisher LK, Moran A, Gottschalk M, Moore WV, Pinckney A, Keyes-Elstein L, AggarwalS, Phippard D, Sayre PH, Ding L, Bluestone JA, Ehlers MR, the START Study Team: Antithymocyte globulin treatment for patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes: 12-month results of a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 1(4): 306-316, December 2013.
Rigby MR, DiMeglio L, Rendell MS, Felner E, Dostou JM, Gitelman SE, Patel CM, Griffin KJ, Tsalikian E, Gottlieb PA, Greenbaum CJ, Sherry NA, Moore WV, Monzavi R, Willi SM et al: Targeting of memory T cells with alefacept in new-onset type 1 diabetes (T1DAL Study): 12 month results of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 1(4): 284-294, December 2013.
Slover RH, Welsh JB, Criego A, Weinzimer SA, Willi SM, Wood MA, Tamborlane WV: Effectiveness of sensor-augmented pump therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in the STAR 3 study. Pediatric Diabetes 13(1): 6-11, February 2012.
Willi SM, Hirst K, Jago R, Buse J, Kaufman F, El Ghormli L, Bassin S, Elliot D, Hale DE; HEALTHY Study Group: Cardiovascular risk factors in multi-ethnic middle school students: the HEALTHY primary prevention trial. Pediatr Obes 7(3): 230-9, March 2012.
Lynch DR, Willi SM, Wilson RB, Cotticelli MG, Brigatti KW, Deutsch EC, Kucheruk O, Shrader W, Rioux P, Miller G, Hawi A, Sciascia T: A0001 in Friedreich ataxia: Biochemical characterization and effects in a clinical trial Mov Disord 27(8): 1026-1033, July 2012.
Copeland KC, Zeitler P, Geffner M, Guandalini C, Higgins J, Hirst K, Kaufman FR, Linder B, Marcovina S, McGuigan P, Pyle L, Tamborlane W, Willi S. TODAY Study Group: Characteristics of adolescents and youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes: the TODAY cohort at baseline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96(1): 159-167, January 2011.
Bergenstal RM, Tamborlane WV, Ahmann A, Buse JB, Dailey G, Davis SN, Joyce C, Peoples T, Perkins BA, Welsh JB, Willi SM, Wood MA: Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy for A1c Reduction (STAR 3) Study: Results from the 6-Month Continuation Phase Diabetes Care 34(11): 2403-05, November 2011.
Bergenstal R, Tamborlaine W, Ahmann A, Buse JB, Dailey G, Davis SN, Joyce, C, Peoples T, Perkins BA, Welsh JB, Willi SM, and Wood MA: Effectiveness of Sensor Augmented Insulin Pump Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 363(4): 311-320, July 2010.
Wu X, Wang J, Cui X, Maianu L, Rhees B, Rosinski J, So V, Willi SM, Osier MV, Hill H, Page GP, Allison DB, Martin M, and Garvey WT: The effect of insulin on expression of genes and biochemical pathways in human skeletal muscle. Endocrine 32(3): 5-17, December 2007.
Willi SM, Martin K, Datko F, Brant BP: Treatment of type 2 diabetes in childhood using a very low calorie diet. Diabetes Care 27(2): 348-353, February 2004.
Willi SM, Planton J, Egede L, Schwarz S: Benefits of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in children with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Pediatrics 143(6): 796-801, December 2003.
Willi SM, Kennedy A, Wallace P, Rogers NI, Garvey WT: Troglitazone antagonizes metabolic effects of glucocorticoids in humans: Effects on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, suppression of free fatty acids and leptin. Diabetes 51(10): 2895-2902, October 2002.
Willi SM, Kennedy A, Brant B, Wallace P, Rogers NI, Garvey WT: Effective use of Troglitazone in the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 58(2): 87-96, November 2002.
Egede LE, Willi SM: Atypical Diabetes Mellitus: About time for a consensus? Pediatric Diabetes 1(4): 226-232, December 2000.
Robinson KA, Willi SM, Bingel S, Buse MG: Decreased hexosamine biosynthesis in GH-deficient dwarf rat muscle: reversal with GH, but not IGF-I, therapy. American Journal of Physiology-Endo 276(3): E435-E442, March 1999.
Brown AM, Willi SM, Argyropoulos G, Garvey WT: A novel missense mutation, R70W, in the human uncoupling protein 3 gene in a family with type 2 diabetes. Human Mutation (online) 13(6): 506, June 1999.
Brown AM, Dolan JW, Willi SM, Garvey WT, Argyropoulos G: Endogenous mutations in human uncoupling protein 3 alter its functional properties. FEBS Letters 464(3): 189-193, December 1999.
Gordon B, Yaakob W, Willi S, Buse M, Gordon L: Congenital thyroid disease revisited: migrational anomalies and dyshormonogenesis. Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 27(4): 282-286, December 1999.
Willi SM, Oexmann MJ, Wright NM, Collop NA, Key LL: The effects of a high-protein, low-fat, ketogenic diet on adolescents with morbid obesity: body composition, blood chemistries, and sleep abnormalities. Pediatrics 101(1): 61-67, January 1998.
Argyropoulos G, Brown AM, Willi SM, Zhu J, He Y Reitman M, Gevao SM, Spruill I, Garvey WT: Effects of mutations in the uncoupling protein 3 gene on the respiratory quotient and fat oxidation in severe obesity and type 2 diabetes. J Clin Invest 102(7): 1345-1351, October 1998.
Willi SM, Zhang Y, Hill JB, Phelan MK, Michaelis RC, Holden KR: A deletion in the long arm of chromosome 18 in a child with serum carnosinase deficiency. Pediatric Research 41(2): 210-213, February 1997.
Wright NM, Papadea N, Wentz B, Willi S, Bell NH: Increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D after growth hormone administration is not parathyroid hormone-mediated. Calcif Tissue Int 61(2): 101-103, August 1997.
Ford LR, Willi SM, Hollis BW, Wright NM: Suppression and recovery of the neonatal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after prolonged dexamethasone therapy. Journal of Pediatrics 131(5): 722-726, November 1997.
Marshall JD, Ludman MD, Shea SE, Salisbury SR, Willi SM, LaRoche RG, Nishina PM: Genealogy, natural history, and phenotype of Alstrom syndrome in a large Acadian kindred and three additional families. Am J Med Genet 73(2): 150-161, December 1997.
Alter CA, Thornton PS, Willi SM, Bunin N, Moshang T: Growth in children after bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia as compared to acute lymphocytic leukemia. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 9(1): 51-57, Jan-Feb 1996.
Wright NM, Papadea N, Willi S, Veldhuis JD, Pandey JP, Key LL, Bell NH: Demonstration of a lack of racial difference in secretion of growth hormone despite a racial difference in bone mineral density in premenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Epdemiology and Metabolism 81(3): 1023-1026, March 1996.
Rhodes SK, Shimoda KC, Waide LR, O'Neil PM, Oexmann MJ, Collop NA, Willi SM: Neurocognitive deficits in morbidly obese children with obstructive sleep apnea. Journal of Pediatrics 127(5): 741-743, November 1996.
Bhala A, Willi SM, Rinaldo P, Bennett M, Schmitt-Somerfeld E, Hale DE: Clinical and biochemical characterization of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. Journal of Pediatrics 126(6): 910-915, June 1995.
Key LL, Rodriguiz RM, Willis SM, Wright NM, Hatcher HC, Eyre DR, Cure J, Griffin P, Ries WL: The long-term treatment of osteopetrosis with recombinant human interferon gamma: An 18 month clinical trial. N Engl J Med 332(24): 1594-9, June 1995.
Tamvakopoulos CS, Willi S, Anderson VW, Hale DE: Acyl-CoA profiles from patients with defects in fatty acid oxidation. Biochem Mol Med 55(1): 15-21, June 1995.
Wright NM, Renault J, Willi S, Veldhuis JD, Gordon L, Key LL, Bell NH: Greater secretion of growth hormone in black than in white men: Possible factor in greater bone mineral density. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80(8): 2291-2297, August 1995.
Stanley CA, Berry G, Hale DE, Bennett MJ, Willi S, Treem W: Renal handling of carnitine in secondary carnitine deficiency disorders. Pediatr Res 34(1): 89-97, July 1993.
Olshan JS, Willi SM, Gruccio D, Moshang T, Jr.: Growth hormone function and treatment following bone marrow transplant for neuroblastoma. Bone Marrow Tranplant 12(4): 381-385, October 1993.
Kao GD, Willis SM, Goldwein JW: The sequellae of chemo-radiation therapy for head and neck cancer in children: managing impaired growth, development, and other side effects. Med Pediatr Oncol 21(1): 60-66, 1993.
Bennett MJ, Bhala A, Guerrera SF, Ragni MC, Willi SM, Hale DE: When does gut flora in the newborn produce phenylproponic acid? Implications for the early diagnosis of the medium chain acyl-CoA deficiency. Clin Chem 38(2): 278-281, February 1992.
Willi SM, Cooke K, Olshan JS, Goldwein J, August CS, Moshang T: Growth after bone marrow transplantation: A comparison of children transplanted for advanced neuroblastoma with children transplanted for leukemia and aplastic anemia. J Pediatr 120(5): 727-732, May 1992.
Olshan JS, Gubernick J, Packer RJ, D'Angio GJ, Goldwein JW, Willi SM, Moshang T: The effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on growth in children with medulloblastoma. Cancer 70(7): 2013-2017, October 1992.
Maxfield M, Willi SM, Cowan DO, Block AN, Poehler TD: Synthesis of 13,13,14,14-tetracyano-pyreno 2-quinodimethane, an electron acceptor for organic metals. J Chem Society (Chem Comm) 20: 947-948, 1980.
Jennifer F. Morone, Carol Howe, Claire Bocage, Steven Willi, Colin P. Hawkes, Terri H. Lipman: Parent's Perspectives of Provider and Healthcare System Drivers of Racial Disparities in the Use of Technology in Children with Type 1 Diabetes. Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) 2022 Meeting, April 21-25, 2022 in Denver, Colorado April 2022.
Carol J. Howe, PhD, RN, CDCES, FAAN, Jennifer Morone, PhD, RN, MA-ATR, Colin Hawkes, MD, PhD, Steven Willi, MD, Terri Lipman, PhD, CRNP, FAAN : Parent's Perspectives of Racial Disparities with Diabetes Devices in Children with Type 1 Diabetes. ADCES22 Annual Conference, August 12-15, 2022, Baltimore Maryland August 2022.
Lai CW, Ojuwuku S, Sheehan M, Willi SM, Lipman T, Hawkes CP: Racial disparities in rates of sustained use of continuous glucose monitors Pediatric Endocrine Society Annual Meeting. Fort Worth Texas (USA), April 2020 April 2020.
Lai CW, Lipman TH, Willi SM, Hawkes CP: Racial disparities in rates of continuous glucose monitor initiation and continued use in children with type 1 diabetes Philadelphia Endocrine Society Annual Meeting. Philadelphia (USA), June 2020 June 2020 Notes: www.philaendosociety.org/CGM_Disparities_PhilaEndoSociety_061620.pdf
MING LI, QIAN ZHANG, SHAN GAO, STEVEN M. WILLI, BCAMS GROUP: Impact of Parental Smoking on Adipokine Profiles and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Chinese Children: The Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Cohort Study. American Diabetes Association Conference, Virtual Meeting due to COVID-19 pandemic. June 2020 Notes: https://doi.org/10.2337/db20-1257-P.
Hitt T, Smith J, Olivos D, Forth E, Stuart F, De La Vega M, Garren P, Mitchell J, Hawkes CP, Willi SM, and Gettings JM.: CGM Ameliorates the Adverse Effects of Fear of Hypoglycemia on Sleep Duration and Sleep Disturbances in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes. International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes Meeting. Abu Dhabi, UAE September 2020.
Lai CW, Willi SM, Lipman TH, Hawkes CPLai CW, Willi SM, Lipman TH, Hawkes CP: Racial disparities in rates of prescribing and continued use of continuous glucose monitors in children with type 1 diabetes. International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes Meeting. Abu Dhabi, UAE September 2020.
Willi SM: Carnosinemia. NORD Guide to Rare Disorders. Gruson E (eds.). Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, Page: 435, 2003.
Willi SM: Hypoglycemia. Saunders Manual of Pediatric Practice. Finberg L (eds.). W.B. Saunders Publishing, Philadelphia, PA, Page: 255-60, 2002.
Willi SM : Disease of the Liver, Pancreas and Gallbladder: Glycogen Storage Diseases. Clinical Pediatric Gastroenterology. Altschuler SM, Liacouras CA (eds.). Churchill/Livingstone Publishers, London UK, Page: 377-83, 1997.
JULIE M. GETTINGS, ELIZABETH J. PANTESCO, ALFONSO FLOYD, STEVEN M. WILLI: Depression Scores and Suicide Attempt History Are Independently Associated with Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in Adolescents and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes. American Diabetes Association Conference, 82nd Scientific Sessions, Poster Presentation 71(Supplement 1)(51-LB): Diabetes 2022;71(Supplement_1):51-LB, June 2022 Notes: DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/db22-51-LB.
LORI M. LAFFEL, THOMAS DANNE, WILLIAM V. TAMBORLANE, GEORGEANNA J. KLINGENSMITH, CHRISTY SCHROEDER, DIETMAR NEUBACHER, NIMA SOLEYMANLOU, JAN MARQUARD, PHILIP ZEITLER, STEVEN M. WILLI: DINAMO-Diabetes Study of Linagliptin and Empagliflozin in Children and Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) : Innovative Study Design and Baseline Characteristics. American Diabetes Association Conference, 82nd Scientific Sessions, Poster Presentation 71(Supplement_1)(994-P): Diabetes 2022;71(Supplement_1):994-P, June 2022 Notes: DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/db22-994-P.
Gal JJ, Li Z, Willi SM, and Riddell MC. : Physical Activity & Glucose Control Among Youth with Type 1 Diabetes. American Diabetes Association Conference, 81st Scientific Sessions, Oral Presentation June 2021.
Gettings J, Patil O, Vajravelu M, Hawkes CP, Tuttle A, Buzby M, Crean S, Dever MB, Mulligan L, and Willi SM.: Integrating the PHQ-A Depression Screening Tool within the Electronic Health Record Increases Detection of Depression Symptoms. American Diabetes Association Conference, 81st Scientific Sessions, Poster Presentation June 2021.
Hitt TA, Smith J, Forth E, Garren P, De La Vega M, Olivos D, Stuart F, Hawkes CP, Willi SM, Gettings JM.: Continuous Glucose Monitor Use Protects Against the Negative Impact of Fear of Hypoglycemia on Sleep Parameters in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes. American Diabetes Association Conference, Poster Presentation, Virtual Meeting due to COVID-19 pandemic. June 2020 Notes: https://doi.org/10.2337/db20-1292-P.
Hitt TA, Smith J, Olivos D, Forth E, Stuart F, De La Vega M, Garren P, Hawkes CP, Willi SM, Gettings JM.: Continuous Glucose Monitor Use Protects Against the Negative Impact of Fear of Hypoglycemia on Sleep Parameters in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes. Philadelphia Endocrine Society Meeting, Virtual Meeting due to COVID-19 pandemic. June 2020 Notes: www.philaendosociety.org/Hitt_Philadelphia_Endocrine_Society_Poster_6152...
Lorraine E. Levitt Katz, MD, Samuel S. Gidding, MD James Otvos, Kimberly Drews, PhD, Bereket Tesfaldet MS, Fida Bacha, MD, Steven Willi, MD, Santica Marcovina, Siripoom McKay,MD, Ruth Weinstock,for the TODAY Study Group: Lipoprotein Particle Distribution by NMR in Youth with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in the TODAY Study. American Diabetes Association Conference, Oral Presentation, Virtual Meeting due to COVID-19 pandemic. June 2020 Notes: https://doi.org/10.2337/db20-59-OR.
SHAN GAO, MING LI, STEVEN M. WILLI, BCAMS GROUP: Childhood Adipokine Profiles Predict the Incidence and Trajectory of Obesity in Young Adults: The BCAMS Study. American Diabetes Association Conference, Oral Presentation, Virtual Meeting due to COVID-19 pandemic. https://doi.org/10.2337/db20-62-OR, June 2020.
Willi SM. "Type 2 Diabetes Update"; Navigating the Journey of Pediatric Diabetes: New Directions for Complex Issues; Wake Area Health Education Center; Raleigh, North Carolina. Spet 2022.
Willi SM. Inpatient management of HHNK and DKA; Navigating the Journey of Pediatric Diabetes: New Directions for Complex Issues; Wake Area Health Education Center; Raleigh, North Carolina. Sept 2022.
2018-2022, Philadelphia Magazine's Top Doctors in Pediatric Endocrinology
2016-present, Honorary Advisor to the Education Program for Maternal and Child Obesity Prevention of China
2014, JDRF Eastern Pennsylvania Chapter Community Partner Award
2012, Castle Connolly Medical Ltd. - Top Doctors
2008, America's Top Pediatricians, Consumer Research Council of America
1999, National General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) Annual Meeting-Third Place Clinical Associate Physician (CAP) competition
1998, American Diabetes Association Travel Grant-58th Annual Meeting
1998, Best Doctors in America (National)
1998, National General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) Annual meeting-The Best of the GCRC Clinical Associate Physicians (CAP's)
1998-present, Marquis' Who's Who in American Medicine and Healthcare
1996-2001, NIH Clinical Associate Physician Award
1996-1997, Best Doctors in America (Southeast Region)
1990, NIH Individual National Research Service Award
1985, Healfman Scholarship Award, Johns Hopkins University
1981-1984, Dean's Fund Scholarship, Johns Hopkins University
1977-1981, Dean's List, Johns Hopkins University
1977-1981, Johns Hopkins Scholarship Grant
1976, Commended Student, National Merit Scholarship Program
2019-present, Review Editor, Pediatric Endocrinology for Frontiers in Medicine
2008-present, Ad-Hoc Reviewer, Pediatric Emergency Medicine
2007-present, Ad-Hoc Reviewer, Pediatric Diabetes
2005-present, Ad-Hoc Reviewer, Endocrinology
2001-present, Ad-Hoc Reviewer, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
1999-present, Ad-Hoc Reviewer, Diabetes Care
1999-present, Ad-Hoc Reviewer, Diabetes
1995-present, Ad-Hoc Reviewer, Pediatrics
1993-present, Ad-Hoc Reviewer, Journal of Pediatrics
2014-present, Endocrinology and Nephrology Scientific Review Committee
2014-present, Junior Investigator Pilot Grant Review Committee, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia & University of Pennsylvania
2013-present, Investigational New Drug (IND) and Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) Scientific Review Committee
2013-present, Vice Chair, Clinical Translational Research Center Advisory Committee
2007-present, Clinical Affairs Committee
2005-present, Endocrinology and Diabetes Executive Committee
2011-present, International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD)
1998-present, Society for Pediatric Research
2013-present, National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
- 2022-present, Special Emphasis Panel/Scientific Review Committees (study section)
- 2016-present, Data Safety Monitoring Board: Artificial Pancreas Program Studies
- 2002-present, Special Emphasis Panel/Scientific Review Committees (study sections)
2015-present, National Institutes of Child Health and Development, Diabetes Working Group
2011-present, U.S. News & World Report Best Children's Hospitals Advisory Committee, Diabetes and Endocrinology
1993-present, American Diabetes Association
- 1994-present, Council on Diabetes in Youth
- 1993-present, Professional Section
1992-present, American Academy of Pediatrics, Fellow
The Patient Experience Rating is an average of all responses to the care provider related questions shown above from our nationally-recognized Press Ganey Patient Satisfaction Survey. Patients that are treated in outpatient or hospital environments may receive different surveys, and the volume of responses will vary by question.
Responses are measured on a scale of 1 to 5 with 5 being the best score.
We are committed to true transparency. However, to ensure the comments are fair and correctly attributed, we review each one before posting to the website. We exclude entire comments that disclose patient's protected health information, are off-topic, or include other confidential or inappropriate content. Comments will appear on provider bios only if providers have a minimum number of comments.
Comments are shared internally for education purposes to ensure that we are doing our very best for the patients and families for whom we are privileged to care.
The comments are submitted by patients and families and reflect their views and opinions. The comments are not endorsed by and do not reflect the views of Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.