Congenital Heart Disease Publications

The following list of publications will help you in your search for more information about the prenatal diagnosis and management of congenital heart disease (CHD). Most are written by members of the Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment and the Cardiac Center's Fetal Heart Program at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. If you are unable to obtain any of these publications, please let us know, and we will send copies to you.

Journal articles


Outcomes for the Superior Cavopulmonary Connection in Children With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A 30-year Experience. Hunt ML, Ittenbach RF, Kaplinski K, Ravishankar C, Rychik J, Steven JM, Fuller SM, Nicolson SC, Spray TL, Gaynor JW, Mascio CE. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2020 Jun 23;ezaa117. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezaa117. Online ahead of print. Read more here.


Rychik J, Goff D, McKay E, Mott A, Tian Z, Licht DJ, Gaynor JW. Characterization of the placenta in the newborn with congenital heart disease: distinctions based on type of cardiac malformation. Pediatr Cardiol. 2018;39(6):1165–1171.

Lawrence KM, Hennessy-Strahs S, McGovern PE, Mejaddam AY, Rossidis AC, Baumgarten HD, Bansal E, Villeda M, Han J, Gou Z, Zhao S, Rychik J, Peranteau WH, Davey MG, Flake AW, Gaynor JW, Bartoli CR. Fetal hypoxemia causes abnormal myocardial development in a preterm ex utero fetal ovine model. JCI Insight. 2018;3(24).

Zidere V, Gebb J, Vigneswaran T, Charakida M, Simpson JM, Bower S. Spontaneous resolution of large pericardial effusion associated with right ventricular outpouching in four fetal cases. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Dec 14; PMID: 30549363

Liu MY, Zielonka B, Snarr BS, Zhang X, Gaynor JW, Rychik J. Longitudinal Assessment of Outcome From Prenatal Diagnosis Through Fontan Operation for Over 500 Fetuses With Single Ventricle‐Type Congenital Heart Disease: The Philadelphia Fetus‐to‐Fontan Cohort Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Sept. 29;7(19):e009145.

Unolt M, Versacci P, Anaclerio S, Lambiase C, Calcagni G, Trezzi M, Carotti A, Crowley TB, Zackai EH, Goldmuntz E, Gaynor JW, Digilio MC, McDonald-McGinn DM, Marino B. Congenital heart diseases and cardiovascular abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: From well-established knowledge to new frontiers. Am J Med Genet A. 2018 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 29663641 

Gaynor JW, Parry S, Moldenhauer JS, Simmons RA, Rychik J, Ittenbach RF, Russell WW, Zullo E, Ward JL, Nicolson SC, Spray TL, Johnson MP. The impact of the maternal-fetal environment on outcomes of surgery for congenital heart disease in neonates. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2018 Feb 13. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezy015. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 29447332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Rychik J, Khalek N, Gaynor JW, Johnson MP, Adzick NS, Flake AW, Hedrick HL. Fetal Intrapericardial Teratoma: Natural History and Management Including Successful In Utero Surgery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Aug 13. pii: S0002-9378(16)30575-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2016.08.010. 

Saul D, Degenhardt K, Iyoob SD, Surrey LF, Johnson AM, Johnson MP, Rychik J, Victoria T. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome and the nutmeg lung pattern in utero: a cause and effect relationship or prognostic indicator?Pediatr Radiol. 2016 Apr;46(4):483-9. doi: 10.1007/s00247-015-3514-6. Epub 2015 Dec 21.


Rychik J, Donaghue DD, Levy S, Fajardo C, Combs J, Zhang X, et al. Maternal psychological stress after prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. J Pediatr. Epub 2012 Sep 10. pii: S0022-3476(12)00801-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.07.023.


Sarno AP Jr, Wilson RD. Fetal cardiocentesis: a review of indications, risks, applications and technique. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2008;23(3):237-44. Epub 2008 Feb 20. Review.


MA Fogel, RD Wilson, AW Flake, MP Johnson, D Cohen, G McNeal, ZY Tian, J Rychik. A new method of functional assessment of the fetal heart using a novel application of "real time" cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Fetal Diagnosis & Therapy 2005; 20:476-480.


Krupnick AS, Kreisel D, Engels FH, Szeto WY, Plappert T, Popma SH, Flake AW, Rosengard BR. A novel small animal model of left ventricular tissue engineering. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 21:233-43, 2002.


Crombleholme TM, Shiraishi H, Adzick NS, Langberg J, Silverman N, Harrison MR: A model of non-immune hydrops in fetal lambs: Complete heart block induced hydrops fetalis. Surgical Forum 42:487-489, 1991.


Crombleholme TM, Harrison MR, Longaker MT, Langer JC, Adzick NS, Bradley SM, Duncan BW, Verrier ED: Complete heart block in fetal lambs I.: Technique and acute physiological response. J Pediatr Surg 25:587 593, 1990.


Crombleholme TM, Longaker MT, Langer JC, Bradley SM, Adzick NS, Harrison MR: Complete heart block and AV-sequential pacing in fetal lambs: The atrial contribution to cardiac output in the fetus. Surg Forum 40:268 270, 1989.

Verrier ED, Crombleholme TM, Sauer L, Longaker M, Langer JC, Flake AW, Dae M, Brem H, Harrison MR: Neonatal model of heterotopic heart transplantation in pigs. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 98:127-35, 1989.


Adzick NS, Harrison MR, Slate RK, Glick PL, Villa RL: Surface cooling and rewarming the fetus: A technique for experimental fetal cardiac surgery. Surg Forum 35:313-316, 1984.

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