A child with a single ventricle defect is born with a heart that has only one ventricle that is large enough or strong enough to pump effectively. The heart has four chambers. The upper chambers, called atria, receive blood flowing into the heart. The lower chambers, called ventricles, pump blood out of the heart.
Single ventricle heart defects include:
Single ventricle heart defects are also referred to as single ventricle lesions or anomalies.
Our newest video demonstrates the advances in heart care for babies with single ventricle heart defects — from before birth through adulthood. Learn how early detection and diagnosis can make a world of difference in the lives of infants born with single ventricle heart defects.
In most cases, children with single ventricle heart defects require intensive medical intervention soon after birth. Symptoms vary depending on the severity and type of defect. They include:
- Blue or purple tint to lips, skin and nails (cyanosis)
- Difficulty breathing
- Difficulty feeding
- Lethargy (sleepy or unresponsive)
Single ventricle defects are often diagnosed before your baby is born through fetal echocardiography. The Fetal Heart Program at CHOP will monitor baby and mother throughout the pregnancy and create a plan for labor and care after the birth.
The Fetal Heart Program team will also discuss delivery in the Garbose Family Special Delivery Unit (SDU). The SDU is on the same floor as the cardiac operating rooms and cardiac patient care units. Here, newborns can be in the care of pediatric cardiologists and specially trained cardiac nurses immediately. Parents are also able to remain in close proximity to baby after delivery.
Sometimes single ventricle heart defects aren’t recognized until your baby is born. Your newborn might look blue or have trouble breathing. The pediatrician at the birth hospital might recognize a heart murmur (an abnormal sound in the heartbeat) and order an echocardiogram, which will show the defect.
In these cases, newborns are transported to CHOP by ambulance or helicopter and admitted to the Evelyn and Daniel M. Tabas Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU), where they will receive round-the-clock attention from a team of dedicated cardiac critical care medicine specialists.
The various types of single ventricle heart defects are very different. For instance, in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), the left side of the heart doesn’t work correctly. In tricuspid atresia, it's the right side. Even though the types of defects are different, the treatments are similar.
Single ventricle defects require a series of open heart procedures, performed over several years. This is called staged reconstruction and includes the Norwood procedure, hemi-fontan or Glenn operation, and the Fontan procedure. Surgeons reconfigure the heart and circulatory system during the procedures.
Your Cardiac Center team will explain the procedures to you in detail, based on your child’s heart anatomy. Your child will also be monitored between surgeries by the Infant Single Ventricle Monitoring Program.
Many patients with single ventricle defects may also require a cardiac catheterization during childhood. CHOP’s interventional cardiologists treat a high volume of single ventricle patients using catheterization. The Cardiac Center has also established a standard of approach to assessing these patients, which includes magnetic resonance imaging and catheterization.
Forty years ago children with single ventricle heart defects didn’t survive past infancy. Because of advances in surgery, medicine and intensive care capabilities, today the majority survive. There are now thousands of people in their 20s and 30s with Fontan circulation.
However, we still don't know the expected life span for these patients. As “single ventricle survivors” get older, doctors are recognizing that, while some do fine, many experience complications, including lung, liver and gastrointestinal diseases. The Cardiac Center at CHOP created the Single Ventricle Survivorship Clinic, part of the Fontan Rehabilitation, Wellness, Activity and Resilience Development (FORWARD) Program, to bring together doctors from different specialties to care for single ventricle survivors. The program is focused on the care of Fontan patients and conducts research into new treatments, quality of life and life span.
In addition, as a group, children with complex congenital heart defects who have had open heart surgery as infants are at a higher risk for neurodevelopmental issues when compared to children without congenital heart defects. The Cardiac Center at CHOP created the Cardiac Kids Developmental Follow-up Program to provide evaluation, screening and clinical care for children with complex congenital heart disease who are at risk for neurodevelopmental problems.
Through age 18
Frequent appointments with your child’s cardiologist in infancy and early childhood are important to minimize risk factors associated with single ventricle heart defects. Your child will need a customized series of diagnostic tests between the planned stages of surgery.
Once the surgeries are complete, your child will have appointments with a pediatric cardiologist once a year or more frequently. It is also possible that your child will require additional surgical or catheter therapies, or in rare cases heart transplantation.
Most children will not be required to take medication regularly, though some patients may need to take aspirin every day to “thin” the blood.
When it comes to physical activities, in most cases, parents are told to allow the child to do as much as he or she is able to do. Most children will self-limit (stop activity if it begins to stress the body). There are also certain sports and activities to avoid. Your team will discuss these with you based on your child’s unique situation.
Children with Fontan circulation must continue to see a cardiologist as an adult. We will help with the transition to an adult cardiologist.
The Philadelphia Adult Congenital Heart Center, a joint program of Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania, meets the unique needs of adults who were born with heart defects.