# Support for Skill Instruction (K-8)

## Kindergarten

### Subject: Reading

** Selection of Basic Skills**

- identify all upper and lower case letters
- identify consonant/vowel sounds
- recognize rhyming words
- write words based on sounds
- K level sight words

### Subject: Math

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- count objects to 30
- extend a simple pattern
- recognize numbers
- recognize shapes
- count forward

## 1st Grade

### Subject: Reading

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- use phonics to decode simple words
- use blending and segmenting phonics techniques
- recognize high frequency sight words
- begin to recognize and self-correct reading mistakes
- make predictions before reading
- related prior knowledge to given reading
- identify story elements such as character, setting, plot
- ask questions before, during and after reading
- read aloud fluently
- summarize text
- tell a store with a beginning, middle and end

### Subject: Math

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- skip count by 2, 5, 10
- familiarity with place value/base ten system (tens, ones, hundreds, etc)
- understand concept of “odd” and “even” numbers
- describe parts of whole using basic fractions (½, ⅓, ¼ etc)
- solve one-step addition and subtraction problems
- turn a word problem into a number sentence (equation)
- use fact families to add and subtract
- measure length, width, weight
- identify money by shape, color, value
- count coins
- describe events in order from beginning to end
- identify two and three dimensional shapes

## 2nd Grade

### Subject: Reading

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- use a variety of strategies to read new words
- read aloud and silently
- self-correct while reading
- recognize high frequency sight words
- identify author’s purpose
- use photos, charts, diagrams and maps in text to inform understanding
- make predictions about texts based on title, photos, maps, diagrams in text
- summarize what they read in order from beginning to end
- identify main idea

### Subject: Math

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- compare whole numbers and basic fractions
- represent fractions using pictures
- put fractions in order from biggest to smallest
- solve two step addition and subtraction problems
- connect multiplication to repeated addition (show that 3x3 is the same as 3+3+3)
- quickly and accurately add and subtract
- estimate sums/differences
- measure height, weight, volume, temperature
- tell time on an analog (circular) clock
- count, compare, order sets of unlike coins
- show equivalent amounts of money
- identify and continue patterns

## 3rd Grade

### Subject: Reading

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- use strategies to break down and identify words (root words, inflection, prefix, suffix)
- use synonyms and antonyms (words that have the same and opposite definition)
- make various connections to text (connect the text to yourself, to other texts, and to the world)
- differentiate fact and opinion
- identify and interpret figurative language
- compare and contrast elements across texts
- identify and explain how a text is structured (sequential order, chronological order, problem/solution)
- identify theme, setting, conflict, characterization
- classify texts as nonfiction (factual) and fiction (contains some made-up elements)

### Subject: Math

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- represent, order, and compare whole numbers and fractions
- compose and decompose numbers (123 = 100+20+3)
- identify the relationship between multiplication and division
- fluently solve basic multiplication and division facts
- solve multiplication and division word problems
- measure objects using standard units in the U.S. customary and metric systems.
- perform simple unit conversions within a system of measurement (e.g., three feet is the same as a yard)
- organize, describe, and make predictions from existing data
- represent data using tables and graphs such as tallies and bar graphs
- specify locations using a coordinate system
- describe the difference between congruence and similarity

## 4th Grade

### Subject: Reading

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- determine the meaning of a word in context when the word has multiple meanings
- use additional resources (e.g., newspapers, interviews, technological resources) as applicable to clarify meanings of unfamiliar words.
- infer cause/effect relationships in expository text (text that explains concepts)
- paraphrase/summarize information in a text.
- use evidence in text to generate and confirm or reject hypotheses
- interpret concepts or make connections through comparison, analysis, evaluation, and inference
- identify metaphor, simile, onomatopoeia, and hyperbole in text.
- identify poetic devices (e.g., alliteration, assonance, consonance, onomatopoeia, rhyme scheme).
- make simple connections from the story to events or people in their own lives

### Subject: Math

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- identify prime numbers through 100.
- recognize equivalent representations for decimals and generate them by composing and decomposing numbers (e.g., 0.15 = 0.1 + 0.05).
- represent fractions as parts of unit wholes, as parts of a set, as locations on a number line, and as divisions of whole numbers.
- solve multi-step number sentences and word problems using whole numbers and the four basic operations.
- measure angles using a protractor or angle ruler
- develop and discuss strategies for estimating the perimeters, areas, and volumes of -regular and non-regular shapes
- create an accurate representation of a polygon with a given perimeter or area
- identify a number pattern, both increasing and decreasing, and extend the number sequence

## 5th Grade

### Subject: Reading

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- identify and interpret common idioms, similes, analogies, and metaphors
- demonstrate understanding of structure through the use of graphic organizers and outlining synthesize key points (ideas) and supporting details to form conclusions
- select reading strategies for text appropriate to the reader’s purpose
- predict how the story might be different if the author changed literary elements or techniques (e.g., dialect, setting, vocabulary)
- use comprehension strategies (e.g., association, categorization, graphic organizers) to enhance understanding
- make inferences and draw conclusions about contexts, events, character, and settings

### Subject: Math

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- place mixed numbers and decimals on a number line
- show equivalent representations of a number by changing from one form to another form (e.g., standard form to expanded form, fraction to decimal, decimal to percent, improper fraction to mixed number).
- solve number sentences and word problems using addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators.
- solve number sentences and word problems using addition and subtraction of decimals
- develop and use strategies to estimate computations involving familiar fractions and decimals
- estimate the perimeter, area, and/or volume of regular and irregular shapes and objects.
- classify two or three dimensional shapes according to their properties (e.g., regular and irregular, concave and convex, types of quadrilaterals, pyramids, and prisms).
- determine the distance between points along horizontal and vertical lines of a coordinate system

## 6th Grade

### Subject: Reading

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- use evidence from the text in order to summarize the plot, make inferences about and analyze the text, and determine the central theme or themes in a text.
- understand and explain the point of view in a text
- understand the significance of certain words and passages in a text.
- understand and relay the main thesis or claims of a non-fiction text and its supporting evidence.
- reads and compare different texts and genres that address the same topics.
- uses a variety of media and formats, including video and audio, to further enhance understanding of a topic or text.
- participate in class-wide and group discussions expressing the ideas and skills learned.
- practice a variety of vocabulary skills, including using the context in which a word is found to determine the meaning of words, recognizing roots of words, and using digital and physical reference materials (dictionaries, thesauruses, and glossaries).
- gain an understanding of and the ability to explain figurative language in a text

### Subject: Writing

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- write using more complex vocabulary and about more complex content
- write over extended periods of time, such as when writing long-term research or expressive pieces that may take a week
- write for short amounts of times, such as in one sitting
- write a variety of genres for a variety of audiences
- write structured and well-organized opinion, research, and informative pieces that
- uses supporting claims and evidence based on credible texts and resources
- includes an introduction, a conclusion, and transitions
- integrates other forms of media and formats, such as graphs, charts, headings, audio, or video when appropriate

- write well-structured narratives (both true and fiction) that include:
- descriptive detail of characters, settings, and experiences
- dialogue
- a clear structure, with a logical order and flow, thought-out word choice, and a conclusion

- plan, revise, and edit writing, with guidance from teachers and peers
- write pieces that display the reading skills achieved, including analysis of text, making comparisons and claims, and developing arguments using specific evidence
- use technology and the Internet to produce and publish writing, work with others, and type a minimum of three pages in one sitting

### Subject: Math

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- divide fractions by fractions
- solve equations using ratios, rates, or percentages
- solve equations with negative numbers
- multiply and divide multi-digit numbers
- find common factors and multiples
- understands and talks about ratios using mathematical language. For example, the ratio of girls to boys in the class is 2:3
- solves algebraic equations with one variable and explains how these equations were solved
- solves geometry problems related to surface area, area, and volume as applied to real-world situations
- develop skills in statistical analysis and applies statistical concepts, including mean, median, variability, and range
- analyze mathematical data, thinking about how data was collected and looking at patterns, including clusters, peaks, gaps, and symmetry
- explain the process used and the thinking behind how problems and equations are solved

## 7th Grade

### Subject: Reading

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- read a variety of texts, including stories, poetry, drama, non-fiction, or informative texts
- analyze texts using quotes or examples from the text as evidence to support the analysis
- make inferences about texts and uses evidence from the text to support the inferences
- understand the message or ideas in a text and uses evidence to support these claims
- understand, track the progress of, and summarize the main idea of a text, using evidence from the text
- analyze and explain the relationship between different elements such as character and setting
- analyze the impact of specific language and word choice used in a text
- understand how the different structures used in a text, such as poetry or drama, affect the text
- compare and contrast the different perspectives and points of views in a text
- determine the author’s point of view in a text using evidence from the text
- compare different versions such as a stage version, film, or audio version of a text, paying specific attention to the way in which elements such as lighting, scenery, or audio sounds affect the message of the text
- compare a historical account of an event, person, or place with a historical fiction text about the same period
- compare multiple texts written by different authors about the same topic and determines how their different perspectives are presented through their presentation of facts and the inferences they make

### Subject: Writing

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- write arguments that present clear reasons and relevant evidence and include:
- introductions;
- acknowledgements of opposing claims;
- logical and orderly presentations of reasons and evidence;
- the use of appropriate transitions, words, and phrases to connect claims;
- a concluding sentence or paragraph which supports the argument made; and
- formal tone and style

- write structured and well organized opinion, research, and informative pieces that:
- use supporting claims and evidence that are based on credible texts and resources;
- include an introduction that has an explanation of what follows;
- develop topics through the use of facts, detailed quotations, and examples and subject specific terms and definitions;
- include transitions that connect concepts and paragraphs;
- include a conclusion that supports the presented idea(s);
- maintain a formal “essay type” style; and
- integrate other forms of media and formats, such as graphs, charts, headings, and audio or video when appropriate

- write well-structured narratives (both true and fiction) that include:
- a narrator, characters, and a point of view;
- descriptive detail and sensory language to describe characters, settings, and experiences;
- dialogue details and descriptions of characters, setting, and experiences;
- a clear structure with a logical order and flow, as shown through the use of transition words; and
- a conclusion that is connected to and builds on the narrative

- plan, revise, and edit writing, specifically with guidance from teachers and peers, focusing specifically on trying new approaches and making sure the writing has a purpose and appeals to its audience
- use technology and the Internet to produce and publish writing
- work with others and cite sources
- work on multiple, short research projects that answer a specific question and cite multiple sources, while gathering additional questions for later research
- use both print and digital resources to conduct research, focusing on using appropriate search terms and reliable sources
- uses quotes and a standard format for citation

### Subject: Math

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- solve equations using percentages that pertain to real-life examples, such as discounts, taxes, interest, and tips
- graph different proportions in order to compare them and analyze the steepness of the line that is graphed (which is referred to as the “slope”)
- use equations to show the relationship between proportions
- understand equations related to the distance between positive and negative numbers and negative and negative numbers
- understand that a positive and negative number can equal 0. For example, 2 + -2 = 0
- add, subtract, multiply, and divide negative numbers
- analyze scale drawings (drawings that represent real-life objects, such as cars or buildings and their measurements) in order to solve equations about them
- understand that an increase by 5 percent is the same thing as multiplying that number by 0.05
- solve multi-step equations that include different forms of numbers, such as fractions, decimals, and percentages
- Uses statistics specifically to understand and infer information about a group or sample as well as compare 2 different groups or samples
- graphs statistics and use the graph to further analyze a group(s) or sample(s)
- predict the probability of something based on collected data

## 8th Grade

### Subject: Reading

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- evaluate the evidence in texts to determine the strongest supports of an idea and analysis
- determine the main idea or theme of a text using evidence from the text to support it
- provide an objective summary of a text
- understand, summarize, and track the progress of the main idea of a text, using evidence from the text
- analyze how elements such as specific dialogue, events, or word usage impact the characters, the decisions they make, and other events and actions in the text
- understand the use of language in a text, including figurative language, analogies, and allusions to other texts
- compare and contrast the different structures of texts including the structures of paragraphs and sentences
- analyze the difference between characters’ points of view and how these differences affect the text
- analyze the pros and cons of using different forms of text and media to present a topic or idea
- compare a text to a film or play version of a text, paying specific attention to the way in which the film or play veers from the text

### Subject: Writing

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- write arguments that present clear reasons and relevant evidence and include:
- introductions
- acknowledgements of opposing claims
- logical and orderly presentation of reasons and evidence
- graphics, special formatting, and multimedia, when appropriate
- support of the claims through the use of evidence from credible sources
- a concluding sentence or paragraph that supports the argument made
- a formal tone and style

- write structured and well-organized opinion, research, and informative pieces that:
- use supporting claims and evidence based on credible texts and resources
- provide an introduction that includes an explanation of what follows
- develop topics through the use of facts, details, quotations, examples, and subject-specific terms and definitions
- include transitions that connect concepts, events, and paragraphs
- include transitions that connect concepts, events, and paragraphs
- include a conclusion that supports the presented idea(s)
- maintain a formal “essay type” style
- integrate other forms of media and formats such as graphs, charts, headings, audio, or video when appropriate.

- writes well-structured narratives (both true and fiction) that include:
- a narrator, characters, and a point of view
- descriptive detail and sensory language to describe characters, settings, and experiences
- dialogue, pacing, reflection, and details and descriptions of characters, setting, and experiences
- thought-out word choice
- a clear structure with a logical order and flow, as shown through the use of transition words and phrases and a logical sequence
- a conclusion that is connected to and builds on the narrative

- plan, revise, and edit writing, specifically with guidance from teachers and peers, focusing specifically on trying new approaches and making sure the writing has a purpose and appeals to its audience
- use technology and the Internet to produce and publish writing, work with others, and cite sources
- works on multiple short research projects that answer specific questions and cite multiple sources, while gathering additional questions for later research
- uses both print and digital resources to conduct research, focusing on using appropriate search terms and reliable sources
- uses quotes and a standard format for citation

### Subject: Math

**Selection of Basic Skills**

- solve linear equations, which are equations that make a straight line when graphed and are expressed as y = mx + b
- use linear expressions to compare data that has two variables
- compare the lines graphed by two linear expressions and determine whether they are parallel, intersecting, or the same
- understand that there are rational and irrational numbers
- solve equations with integers that are whole numbers, both positive and negative
- solve equations with radicals that are “roots,” such as square roots
- understand, compares, and solves equations with functions that are usually expressed as f(n) and represent the relationships between an input and an output
- learn the concept of congruence (equal length) and similarity (when two objects have the same angles and are proportionate) through the use of models, transparencies, or software
- understand and solve equations using the Pythagorean Theorem: a2 +b2 = c2
- solve equations about the volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres, specifically as applied in real-world ways